Why in the news?

In a recent political meeting in Hyderabad, PM Modi asked BJP national executive in Hyderabad to reach out to the deprived and downtrodden communities other than Hindus, especially the Pasmanda community in UP and Bihar.

Who are the Pasmanda Muslims?

  • Pasmanda word is derived from the Persian language meaning ‘left behind.’
  • The Pasmanda community comprises Dalits and Backward Muslims who are struggling with a different social campaign within the society.
  • This community has its footprints majorly in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
    • Pasmandas account for over 75% of the total Muslim population in UP and Bihar.
  • 85% of the total population of Muslims in India is known as Pasmanda.
  • It is assumed that the so-called untouchable Hindu force-convertee are labelled as Pasmanda.

A caste system in minorities

  • The caste system is pertinent to Asian Muslims similarly as it is applicable in Indian society.
  • Among the South Asian Muslims including those living in India, 15% are classified as an upper class called Ashraf.
  • The remaining 85% of Muslims known as Arzal and Ajlaf are termed to be Dalit and backward. Arzal means degraded.

Why political parties are focusing on them?

  • As per the national reports, established Muslims in the country look down upon them.
  • They are oppressed, depressed, and backward economically, socially, and educationally.
    • This oppressed section among Muslims is called Pasmanda in India.

A social movement in making

  • The Pasmanda movement in India is 100 years old.
    • The Pasmanda movement appeared in the second decade of the last century.
  • In the 90s in India, two big firms originated in favour of the Pasmanda Muslims.
    • All India United Muslim Front, whose leader was Ejaz Ali.
    • All India Pasmanda Muslim Merej was founded by Ali Anwar of Patna and founded an organization named
    • However, both are referred to as non-Islamic by Muslim religious leaders.
  • Overall small firms of Pasmanda Muslims are mostly found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal.

What are the demands of the Pasmanda Muslims?

  • Pasmanda Muslims say that despite their large strength within the community, they are under-represented in jobs, legislatures, and government-run minority institutions, as well as community-run Muslim firms.
  • Pasmandas are also anti to the demand for giving religion-based reservations to the overall Muslim population, disputing that it ignores unequal status to state resources within the community.
  • The major Pasmanda demands include conducting a caste census, structuring the existing reservation categories, and state support for most poverty-stricken groups in the community.


  • The Pasmanda Muslims are the oppressed communities where political parties have turned their eyes to enhance their social and economic status within the country.
  • The Pasmanda Muslimes have their separate demands and campaign which clashes government's plan of action.
  • These poverty-stricken communities need attention whether it be Pasmandas or other communities in the country to develop their socio-economic condition.