Model Answer

The economic status of the country and the households (which determine their needs). The household itself (determined by it's size, labour force, assets etc.). Cultural aspects (which partly determine the kind of crops grown).  

Infrastructure and availability of fossil energy and inputs (which determine transportation capacities, availability of seeds and fertilisers), climate, soils and water. 

Merits of Peri Urban Agriculture are – • Basic Life support - Provides fresh food, generates employment, recycles urban waste, creates greenbelts, and strengthens cities’ resilience to climate change. • Climate Change - Beyond the agro-products provided, trees will help in sustaining ecosystems by acting as carbon sinks, protection of water-supply catchments for the cities, protection against landslides and floods.  Help in climate change adaptation through diversification of food resources for the urban population. Reduce the burden on transport, and help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cold storages.  UPA helps closing the energy loops and transforming waste into biodiversity along with reduction in post-harvest losses.  Less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food. Proximity to services, including waste water treatment facility.  Increase in Sustainable soil conservation and management practices. However, on the other side of the coin, there are some issues which are restricting the Peri Urban 


Agriculture to its full potential – 

  • Lack of access to water and other productive resources. 
  • Competition for land and issues related to tenure rights. 
  • Use of concrete as building material urban heat islands are created. 
  • Food safety concerns regarding the use of waste water and organic material. 
  • Identification of fields of interventions along with analysis of technical issues.