Salient features

  • The Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 
  • In 1985, the programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90 with the one of largest health programmes in the world.
  • Provide free access to vaccines to all children across the country.
  • Establish a reliable cold chain system.
  • Achieve self sufficiency in vaccine production.

The UIP  has vaccines for tweleve diseases viz

  • Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio

Measles (measles-rubella (MR) vaccine – single vaccine for dual protection against measles and rubella)

severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis,

Hepatitis B.

  • Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B across the country; (Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) was recently launched against pneumonia and meningitis.)
  • Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis and Rotavirus diarrhoea →these 3 only in selected states.