united-nations

Background: 

  • The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations.
  • The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 
  • A document called The Declaration by the United Nations was signed in 1942 by 26 nations, pledging their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers (Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis) and bound them against making a separate peace.

About UN: 

  • The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. 
  • It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. 
  • Headquarter:  New York City
  • Other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague.
  • Each of the 193 Member States of the United Nations is a member of the General Assembly.States are admitted to membership in the UN by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.  All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded. 
  • The Secretary-General of the United Nations is a symbol of the Organization's ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable. 
  • The current Secretary-General of the UN, and the ninth occupant of the post, is Mr. António Guterres of Portugal.
  • The UN system, also known unofficially as the 'UN family', is made up of the UN itself and many programmes, funds, and specialized agencies, all with their own leadership and budget.  
  • Source of funding: The programmes and funds are financed through voluntary rather than assessed contributions. The Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions.

Indian Members in the UN 

  • Soumya Swaminathan, director general of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was appointed as the Chief Scientist at the WHO. 
  • An Indian Justice Dalveer Bhandari was re-elected as a judge to the International Court of Justice. 
  • International law expert Neeru Chadha was elected to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.