top-50-most-important-topics-for-geography-by-jvs-ias-academy

TOP 50 IMPORTANT TOPICS OF GEOGRAPHY FOR UPSC (PRELIMS + MAINS)

1. Let us start with number of questions being asked from geography every year in UPSC prelims.

YEAR                                   NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ASKED

2011                                           11

2012                                           12

2013                                           09

2014                                           12

2015                                           14

2016                                           07

2017                                           07

2018                                           08

2019                                           14

From this trend we can see that the marks vary from 15-30 marks every year i.e. 15 % of the total marks i.e. 200 marks.

Now we will see about the top 50 topics of Geography and why.

TOP 50 GEOGRAPHY TOPICS 

TOPIC NAME 

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT?

  1. Origin and evolution of the earth

UPSC PRELIMS 2017 :

The terms ‘Event Horizon’, ‘Singularity’, `String Theory’ and ‘Standard Model’ are sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) Observation and understanding of the Universe

(b) Study of the solar and the lunar eclipses

(c) Placing satellites in the orbit of the Earth

(d) Origin and evolution of living organisms on the Earth

UPSC 2012:

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

  1. Earthquake

Recent Delhi and other earthquakes

  1. Volcanoes

Upsc prelims 2018:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Continental drift theory

Recently Zealandia continent found which marks the correctness of the drift theory

UPSC 2014:

  1. Plate tectonics

Mountain building process : HIMALAYAN FORMATION.

  1. Types of Landforms

UPSC 2012:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Soil formation 

UPSC 2010:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

 

  1. Solar radiation & Heat budget of the earth

Global warming

Upsc questions 2013:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Atmospheric circulation – cyclones, westerlies, jet streams

Recent amphan cyclone 

UPSC 2015:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2015:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Evaporation, condensation and precipitation

Thunderstorm and lightning in Bihar and up

UPSC 2019:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2013:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. World climate and climate change

UPSC 2015:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Relief of the oceans
 
  1. Temperature and salinity distribution in the ocean.

UPSC 2012:

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

  1. Types of ocean current

UPSC 2015:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Ecosystem 

UPSC 2011:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated



 

  1. Biodiversity and conservation

Upsc 2013:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2011:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Physiography of India – mountains, hills, plateau, plains etc.

UPSC 2017:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2015:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Drainage system of India

UPSC 2017:

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2016:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Climate of India – Indian monsoon

UPSC 2014: 

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Natural vegetation and soils of India – National parks, biosphere reserves, mangroves etc.

UPSC 2016:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

 

UPSC 2015:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

Upsc questions: 2018


  A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2011:

A close up of text on a white background

Description automatically generated

  1. Natural disasters- Floods, droughts, landslide,cyclones,earthquakes

Tsunami.

UPSC 2011: (TSUNAMI & MANGROVES)

A close up of text on a white background

Description automatically generated

  1. Indian agriculture and types

UPSC 2019

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Coral reefs

UPSC 2018:

Consider the following statements :

  1. Most of the world’s coral reefs are in tropical waters.
  2. More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are located in the territories of Australia, Indonesia and Philippines.
  3. Coral reefs host far more number of animal phyla than those hosted by tropical rainforests.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3.  1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


 

The above table consists of core geographical concepts, however there are some related geographical concepts also which we regularly see in current affairs:

 

TOPIC NAME

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT?

24.El- nino 

UPSC 2010:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

25.La-nina

UPSC 2011:

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

  1. Indian ocean dipole

UPSC 2017:

With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. IOD phenomenon is characterised by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.

2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

  1. Madden Julian oscillations

CURRENT AFFAIRS : As good for Indian monsoon

  1. Polar vortex

CURRENT AFFAIRS: ozone depletion & ozone hole

  1. Pacific decadal oscillations

CURRENT AFFAIRS : Affect Indian monsoon

  1. Heat waves

CRRENT AFFAIRS: criteria and European heat waves

 

  1. Sun spot cycles

CURRENT AFFAIRS: effects climate change

  1. Forest fire 

CURRENT AFFAIRS: amazon fire , Australian bush fire

   
  1. Tribes of the world and India

A close up of text on a white background

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2019

  1. Heat islands

INCREASING AIR POLLUTION IN METRO CITIES

  1. Seismic noise 

CURRENT AFFAIRS

  1. Environmental impact assessment

NEW EIA DRAFT BILL 2020

  1. Ring of fire

Volcanic eruptions in pacific ocean : Indonesian and Philippines volcanic eruption.

 

  1. Wetlands and their conservation

UPSC 2012:

A picture containing table

Description automatically generatedA picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Distribution of wildlife and their conservation

Upsc 2013:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Places in news

Upsc 2018

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2018

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Mountain passes and lakes (part of physiography of India)

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

UPSC 2018

  1. Major straits of the world

UPSC 2011:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Major water bodies – Mediterranean sea, Caspian sea, black sea etc. (part of oceanography)

UPSC 2019:

A screenshot of text

Description automatically generated

  1. Population and related issues 

Labour migration, sex ratio and relates schemes

UPSC 2011:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Minerals and their distribution

Upsc 2018

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

 

  1. International trade

CURRENT AFFAIRS :Trade deficit of India  with china

  1. Energy resources and crisis

UPSC 2013:

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

  1. Industrial setup

Sez, nimz (National Investment Manufacturing Zone), sagarmala

UPSC 2015: (CAN ALSO BE INCLUDED UNDER MINERALS TOPIC)

A picture containing bird, flower

Description automatically generated

  1. Transport and communication

Air India nationalisation (upsc pre),AGR (Adjusted gross revenue of telecom company)

UPSC 2016:

A picture containing bird

Description automatically generated

  1. Water conservation

UPSC 2014:

 

  1. Some topics may seems to overlap with Environment and ecology and also with economics and current schemes but it forms and essential part of Geography.
  2. The human geography deals with population and related issues like migration etc is to be covered. Also there are different government schemes also for solving the population related issues like beti bachao beti padhao abhiyan etc.
  3. This shows that how geography is related to other subjects like economy, society and even history.

Therefore if you prepare geography very thoroughly it will also help you in the completion of other subjects also.