The Prime Minister spoke of emerging new global order in the context of a post pandemic world and the role India could play in it. Most of the experts have agreed that pandemic is not so much a cause of restructuring but it coincided with the cluster of changes and has also allowed the global community to view these changes with more clarity.


  • The theory refers to several important aspects of international relations
  • It is about significant increase in national power of a big nation as a result of its genuine and rapid economic development
  • It is also the impact of this growing power on the international system specially on the hegemonic position of the dominant nation.
  • Throughout the history changes in the balance of power and efforts to keep or alter the international order have led to struggles among big Nations and set the stage for great powers
  • After the end of cold war during 1990s, the unipolar movement brought the rise of the United States as the sole superpower of the world
  • Since there was no other challenging super power, economic, military superiority as well as political influence throughout the world was coined to be the unipolar movement of the United States in the world system
  • That inward orientation is still observed in American foreign policies even today- America first, American dream and other such euphemisms.
  • The new found emphasis on individual economic Liberty was in contrast with the idea of justice for all and this became a major problem as economic inequality increased and the spoils of capitalism were restricted to a privileged few later in the century

The emergence of new geographies 

  • China's genuine and phenomenal economic development over the past decade has potentially lead this Titanic change impacting thereby the US led International system
  • Indo-pacific has been mentioned as the new geography by various diplomats and policymakers to formulate the legislation
  • The leaders of four large democracie who constitute the QUAD ( US, India, Japan, Australia) have time and again reiterated their commitment to free and open indo-pacific that is undaunted by coercion


Crystallization of the Process of Rise of China

  • The power of China has been increasing along with continuous importance of globalisation especially  in terms of economic interdependence as well as high level of economic integration

Counter trends to globalisation

  • The tightly integrated and interdependent world at the same time is witnessing a new privacy being attached to National boundaries and to the idea of nation state being self contained and even possibility of being a self sufficient unit
  • The older trends of regional integration and cooperation are now accompanied by counter trends of nationalism and national self-sufficiency

Complex world order

  • After the end of World Wars in 1919 or 1945, the New World order was envisaged and constructed by the  victors in these contests . 
  • Presently, we are not in the kind of situation of that widespread destruction with clearly identified victors and vanquished, today's world order is too complex to be fashioned by choice of some powers
  • The afghanistan's debacle has not only raised questions about the US competence and credibility but they have exposed the limitations that exist in remaking the the desired world
  • The present constellation or distribution of powers is not of preponderance of one power , rather we are in a juncture of relative power shift.
  • It is one in which a number of new players along with China are seeking reordering of existing rules and precedences 

Different perspectives of power shift

  • The China centric view indicates a new power pushing in all directions to rewrite the existing codes which it it feels are working against it
  • India is also another force questioning the existing order, for example India's long standing critique of uneven distribution of power in United nation and inadequate reflection of current realities at UNSC


Domestic priorities

  • India most focused on the enormous unfulfilled expectations including the domestic challenges of economic development, employment and poverty eradication
  • The government's vision to catalyse India's transformation is evident in the launch of several initiatives like the Gati Shakti National master plan ,Atmanirbhar Bharat mission, National Infrastructure Pipeline etc

Neighbourhood first policy

  • We cannot ignore or graduate out of their immediate region, the narrator value of global positioning can never supersede the realities of difficulties in neighbourhood and making policies to address these issues
  • The Neighbours provide the most rigorous and true litmus test of any country's foreign policy
  • Being largest country in South Asia there is an additional responsibility on India to foster the regions integrity in spite of various difficulties in that process
  • The texture and quality of a relation with each of a South Asian neighbours would largely determine our success to counter China

Revitalisation of SAARC

  • The persistent state of crisis with Pakistan shivali impacted India's approach to SAARC, the numerous provocations have led to re prioritising and even downgrading SAARC
  • In absence of negotiations at SAARC regional cooperation in South Asia as a whole has suffered and this is also not in long-term interests of India as well, so there is a need to address the issue centrally.

Counting the rise of China

  • The central concern of indian foreign policy in years ahead is the rise of China in the global stage,  accompanied by expanded presence and assertion in South Asia whose impact on India cannot be minimised

The social capital

  • India’s centrality in the region has also to be based upon certain normative positions in terms of setting standards of democracy and democratic institutions, diversity, social harmony and inclusiveness.
  • This is the kind of social capital that underwrites diplomacy and foreign policy apart from our economic, cultural and political position in South Asia
  • Compromising or minimising the normative or narrative role in building the overall architecture of our external policies would be a big mistake


Economic policy

  • India needs to prioritise its economic expansion and sustainability for maintaining its trajectory of growth and influence. 
  • India must continue to embrace transformational rather than incremental changes shaping an economic policy that supports rapid growth

Focus on physical and social infrastructure

  • There is a need to ramp up infrastructure efforts not just for roads and bridges but also for health and education
  • Insuring that India's demographic advantage becomes a dividend is equally critical and also so there is a need to ensure that millions of young people entering the workforce every year gained meaningful employment

Vasudev Kutumbakam

  •  India's diplomatic efforts on the global stage are driven by the philosophy of Vasudev Kutumbakam that is the world is one family
  • Especially during the times of pandemic, this kind of a narrative is what the world needs, India has called for renewed and reformed multilateralism in resonance with global leaders and policy makers

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