The Kazakhstan’s Sultan Resigns Kazakhstan has renamed its capital Astana as Nur-Sultan in honour of the country’s longtime president Nursultan Nazarbayev who resigned earlier this week. It is the end of his 30-year rule over the energy-rich Central Asian country. Became independent nation in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. Ex-Soviet states divide broadly into two camps. Some became western-style democracy, including Georgia, Ukraine, central Asian Kyrgyzstan, Armenia. Kazakhstan is in the second camp of dynastic rule. It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia. The most western parts are in Europe. Generates 60% of the region’s GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Shares border with a large part of the Caspian Sea. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes A member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union. Read Also:-India Maldives Relations – A Journey of Twists and Turns

India- Kazakhstan Relations

The flow of Buddhism from India to Central Asia and Sufi ideas from Central Asia to India The India-Kazakhstan Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) established in 1993 is the apex bilateral institutional mechanism for developing trade, economic, scientific. The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas on the Indian side and Ministry of Energy on the Kazakh side are the nodal ministries. Kazakhstan is India’s largest trade and investment partner in Central Asia. The major products imported by India during 2016-17 were petroleum oils. Major products exported to Kazakhstan were Pharmaceuticals and medical products (39.33%), coffee & tea (28.5%), machinery (7.6%), apparel (6.6%) and chemical products (5.2%). India has conceived the idea of a hydrocarbon pipeline with Kazakhstan that would bring fuel through a five-nation route. India showed its interest in participating in the Eurasian project to develop oil and gas fields in the North of the Caspian Sea. Read Also:-IRNSS system / NavIC