Succession is a universal process of Directional change in vegetation, on an ecological time scale which leads to the establishment of a relatively stable climax community.

Stages of Ecological Succession:

Pioneer community —> Seres (or) Seral Stage —>Climax Community

Pioneer Community:

The first group of organisms which establish their community in the area is called ‘Pioneer’ Community.

Ex: Lichen, Moss and Microbes

Seral Stage:The various developmental stages of a community is called ‘seres’.

Herbs and Shrubs usually grow after further weathering of rocks, and increase in moisture and soil.

Climax Community:

The final stage of succession which leads to a stable community.