Answers the following Question No. 1 to 25 Maximum 250 words and 10 marks each: Question 1: Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political history of South India, the Sangam literature portrays the social and economic conditions of its time with remarkable vividness. Comment. (10 marks-200 words.) Question 2: a. Discuss the Tandava dance as recorded in the early Indian inscriptions. (5 marks- 100 words.)

  1. Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. Discuss. (5 marks- 100 words.)
Question 3: Defying the barriers of age, gender and religion, the Indian women became the torch bearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. (10 marks-200 words) Question 4: Several foreigners made India their homeland and participated in various movements. Analyze their role in the Indian struggle for freedom. 10 marks-200 words Question 5: In many ways, Lord Dalhousie was the founder of modern India. Elaborate. 10 marks-200 words Question 6: Critically discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave and their success. 10 marks-200 words Question 7: Write a critical note on the evolution and significance of the slogan “Jai Jawana Jai Kisan”. 10 marks-200 words Question 8: Discuss the contribution of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre-and post-independent India. 10 marks-200 words Question 9: Analyse the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement. 10 marks-200 words Question 10: Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive roles in the emergence of Bangladesh. 10 marks-200 words Question 11: “Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience. 10 marks-200 words Question 12: Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse. 10 marks-200 words Question 13: American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate. 10 marks-200 words Question 14: What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression? 10 marks-200 words Question 15: Discussion the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India. 10 marks-200 words Question 16: Male membership needs to be encouraged in order to make women’s organization free from gender bias. Comment. 10 marks-200 words Question 17: Critically examine the effects of globalization on the aged population in India. 10 marks-200 words Question 18: Growing feeling of regionalism is an important factor in the generation of demand for a separate state. Discuss. 10 marks-200 words Question 19: (a). What do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support. 5 marks 100 words (b) The recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called “Phailin”. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world? Elaborate. 5 marks-100 words. Question 20: (a) Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world. 5 marks 100 words (b) What do you understand by the phenomenon of temperature inversion in meteorology? How does it affect the weather and the habitants of the place? 5 marks 100 words Question 21:  Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why?  10 marks-200 words. Question 22: (a) Bring out the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in Western Ghats. 5 marks 100 words (b) There is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghats. Why? 5 marks 100 words Question 23: (a) Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in the Southern states of India? Discuss with justification. 5 marks 100 words (b) Analyse the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India. 5 marks 100 words Question 24: With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world. 10 marks-200 words Question 25:  It is said the India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resources doesn’t appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved. 10 marks-200 words