Q.The juvenile delinquency is on rise in India. Explain Issues and Challenges with Juvenile Justice in India and propose measures to address the same.

Why this question:

The Bill was proposed in march 2021. The bill was welcomed by all the members of lok-sabha.

Key demand of the question:

Explain Issues and Challenges with Juvenile Justice in India, propose measures to address the same.


Explain  -Examine the structure, nature of the topic by separating it into component parts.


Give a brief introduction about juvenile delinquency legal measures, Issues and challenges ,importance of their implementation in India.


In the first part Discuss reasons for which the juvenile delinquency is on rise in India.

Explain what the Juvenile Justice is , challenges in implementation of law.


Conclude with the way forward.

Model Answer


Juvenile delinquency refers to the antisocial or criminal activity of the child which violates the law

  • A juvenile can be defined as a child who has not attained a certain age at which he can be held liable for his criminal acts like an adult person under the law of the country.
  • The term ‘juvenile in conflict with the law’ refers to any person below the age of 18 who has come in contact with the justice system as a result of committing a crime or being suspected of committing a crime.

As per data compiled by the National Crime Records Bureau, the incidents of juvenile crime have constantly increased between 2010-2014

There has been a 7.2% rise in juvenile crimes between 2015-16. Maximum number of cases under crime against children were reported in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency:

Juvenile delinquency is fostered by a wide range of factors which include:

  1. Poverty: Poverty is one of the major reasons for juvenile delinquency. Juveniles indulge themselves in delinquent acts in order to meet and satisfy the primary wants of their life.
  2. Family: It has been widely accepted that families of delinquents are characterized by discord, desertions and other problems.Such families have been pointed out as one of the main causes of delinquency.
  3. Neighbourhood:The immediate environments of a child also affect the trend he will adopt in connection with his personality. Juvenile delinquents largely belong to areas of poor living conditions.
  4. Factors related to Mental Health: various mental health factors contribute to juvenile delinquency. For example: Conduct disorder.
  5. Virtual world:Constant exposure to aggression – verbal and physical – on television news, videos and games also contributes to increasing juvenile delinquency.

Issues and Challenges with Juvenile Justice in India

  1. Term of sentence:There is no logical or scientific reason which shows that total and complete rehabilitation can be achieved by a child in conflict with the law within a maximum period of three years.
  2. Post completion of term and aftercare: Absolute lack of implementation of the provisions of the JJ Act after a juvenile completes his sentence is a major concern. India’s massive population makes it impossible to track and ensure that a juvenile once released continues with his therapy or even reports regularly to his parole officer.
  3. Juveniles in Adult jails:National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), a number of probable juveniles are found in adult jails. Further, the police subvert the guidelines of JJ Act and lodge juveniles into adult jails.

Way Forward:

  1. Child guidance clinics should be established in order to give appropriate treatment to the disturbed and mal-adjusted children.
  2. Social environment -slum areas, busy market places, gambling centres, etc., should be improved.



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