Q)As per the World Health Organisation (WHO), Nipah Virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both humans and animals.Examine the ways the disease can be curbed.

Why this question?

Issue of current importance.

Key demand of the Question 

Examine the causes of Nipah Virus.


Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.


Start with giving an introduction about the origin of disease.


In the first part, enumerate the steps taken by the government to curb the disease.

In the next part, discuss the associated concerns.


Conclude with a way forward.

Model Answer


Nipah Virus first appeared in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999.It first appeared in domestic pigs and has been found among several species of domestic animals including dogs, cats, goats, horses, and sheep.

About Nipah Virus:

  • Zoonotic Disease: it is transmitted from animals to humans.
  • Nipah Virus is caused by an RNA (Ribonucleic acid) virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus.
  • Closely related to Hendra virus: Hendra Virus is a rare emerging zoonosis that causes severe and often fatal disease in both infected horses and humans).

It spreads through fruit bats or ‘flying foxes,’ of the genus Pteropus (natural hosts of the virus). Infected bats shed the virus through excreta and secretions. Nipah Virus is generally transmitted from animals to human beings, mainly from bats and pigs. Human-to-human transmission and transmission through contaminated food is also possible.

Symptoms of Nipah Virus:

  • Common symptoms include- drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, fever, headache and mental issues such as confusion.
  • Severe Fever for several days: leads to inflammation of the brain causing a state of confusion, disorientation and even persistent drowsiness.
  • Neurological, respiratory and pulmonary signs also emerge in an infected individual.
  • Treatment: No vaccine has been developed yet for curing the infection in both humans and animals.
  • The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care and supportive medicines.