In News: The Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya on his 158th birth anniversary (25th December, 2019).

About Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya:

  • He was a freedom fighter and social reformer who served as Congress President on 4 occasions (Lahore 1909, Delhi 1918, Delhi 1932, Calcutta 1933).
  • His works: 
    • He was the editor of a Hindi magazine, ‘Hindustan’.
    • He became the editor of the ‘Indian Opinion’ in 1889.
    • He also started a Hindi weekly ‘Abhyudaya’, an English daily ‘Leader’, a Hindi newspaper ‘Maryada’.
  • Contribution in freedom movement: 
    • He opposed separate electorates to Muslims ,the Lucknow Pact and INC’s participation in Khilafat movement.
    • He was a participant in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931.
    • He started the Ganga Mahasabha to oppose construction of dams in the Ganga.
  • Social reforms initiated by him:
    • He was also a social reformer who opposed untouchability. He worked for the temple entry of Dalits at the Kalaram Temple at Nashik, Maharashtra.
    • He opposed the system of indentured labor during the British Empire.
  • Reforms in the field of education: 
    • He espoused free and compulsory primary education.
    • He played a pivotal role in establishing Banaras Hindu University in 1916 and later on became its vice chancellor in 1939. 
  • He supported the nationalization of railways.

He was awarded India’s Highest Civilian Honour i.e Bharat Ratna posthumously in 2014.