Context: The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) and e-Gopala App has been launched.
Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana
- The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) will be implemented for a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 in all States/Union Territories, as a part of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Package.
- It has two components — Central Sector Scheme (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).
- Under the CSS component, the funding pattern for the Northeastern and Himalayan states will be 90?ntral share and 10% state share; for other states it will be 60?ntral share and 40% state share; and for Union territories (with and without legislature) it will be 100?ntral share.
- However, under CS component of PMMSY, “the entire project/unit cost will be borne by the Central government (i.e. 100?ntral funding)”.
- The investment of Rs. 20,050 crores under PMMSY is the highest ever in the fisheries sector.
- It involves both the beneficiary-oriented activities in Marine, Inland fisheries and Aquaculture and for Fisheries Infrastructure.
- PMMSY aims at:
- enhancing fish production by an additional 70 lakh tonne by 2024-25 at an average annual growth rate of about 9%,
- increasing fisheries export earnings to Rs.1,00,000 crore by 2024-25,
- doubling of incomes of fishers and fish farmers,
- reducing post-harvest losses from 20-25% to about 10% and generation of additional 55 lakhs direct and
- indirect gainful employment opportunities in fisheries sector and allied activities.
- PMMSY scheme primarily focuses on adopting ‘Cluster or Area based approaches’ and creation of Fisheries clusters through backward and forward linkages.
- Special focus will be given for employment generation activities such as seaweed and ornamental fish cultivation.
- The scheme will result in increasing aquaculture average productivity to 5 tons per hectare from the current national average of 3 tons per hectare.
- Constituting about 7.73% of the global fish production, India today has attained the status of the second largest aquaculture and 4th largest fish exporting nation in the world.
- Though the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) was announced as part of the Centre’s economic stimulus package in response to COVID-19, it does not seem to contain any components aimed at relief or financial assistance to provide immediate help for the hard-hit fisheries sector.
- It involves investments of more than ₹20,000 crore from Centre, the States and beneficiaries over a five-year period.
- While aiming to consolidate the achievements of Blue Revolution Scheme, PMMSY envisages many new interventions such as fishing vessel insurance, Bio-toilets, Aquaculture in saline/alkaline areas, Sagar Mitras, Integrated Aqua parks, Biofloc & Cage Culture, Aquaponics, etc.
- It is essentially a technology for farming fish or other aquatic organisms by reusing the water in the production.
- These are used as a low-cost means of cleaning the culture water of fish and shrimp farms while simultaneously providing an additional source of feed.
- Biofloc systems bank on photosynthesis to convert uneaten feeds, faeces and excess nutrients into food.
- In traditional farming systems, only about 25 percent of the protein content of feeds are actually utilised by farmed species.
- By converting ammonium into microbial proteins (with the help of bacteria) that can be consumed by filter feeders (including diatoms, fungi, algae, protozoans and various types of plankton) which in turn can be eaten by the fish, biofloc systems are able to double this figure, saving farmers big money.
- Biofloc systems reduce the spread and effectiveness of pathogens while simultaneously improving fish health through better water quality and bolstered feed availability.
- It is a combination of aquaculture, which is growing fish and other aquatic animals, and hydroponics which is growing plants without soil.
- Aquaponics uses these two in a symbiotic combination in which plants are fed the aquatic animals’ discharge or waste.
- In return, the vegetables clean the water that goes back to the fish.
- Along with the fish and their waste, microbes play an important role to the nutrition of the plants.
- These beneficial bacteria gather in the spaces between the roots of the plant and converts the fish waste and the solids into substances the plants can use to grow.
- e-Gopala App is a comprehensive breed improvement marketplace and information portal for direct use of farmers.
- Some of the major reforms and steps taken by the Union Government to harness the potential of the Fisheries sector in a sustainable and responsible manner towards ushering the Blue Revolution in Fisheries include:
- (i) Creation of a separate Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying in the Union Government,
- (ii) Setting up a new and dedicated Department of Fisheries with independent administrative structure,
- (iii) Implementation of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries during the period 2015-16 to 2019-20,
- (iv) Creation of Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF), and
- (v) Launching of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)