pradhan-mantri-matsya-sampada-yojana-a-scheme-to-bring-about-blue-revolution-summary

Context: The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister, has given its approval for implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY).

About PMMSY:

  1. PMMSY is a scheme that aims to  bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India under two components namely, 
    1. Central Sector Scheme (CS) and 
    2. Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) 
  2. The scheme has a total estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crore comprising-  

(i) Central share of Rs. 9,407 crore, 

(ii) State share of Rs. 4,880 crore and 

(iii) Beneficiaries' share of Rs. 5,763 crore.   

  1. The Scheme will be implemented during a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Government of India. 

The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) Component:

  • It is further segregated into Non-beneficiary oriented and Beneficiary orientated sub-­components /activities under the following three broad heads:
    • Enhancement of Production and Productivity
    • Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Management         
    • Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework
  • Funding Pattern: PMMSY will be implemented with the following funding pattern:  
    • Central Sector Scheme (CS):
      • The entire project/unit cost will be borne by the Central government (i.e. 100?ntral funding).
      • Wherever direct beneficiary oriented i.e. individual/group activities are undertaken by the entities of central government including National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), the central assistance will be up to 40% of the unit/project cost for General category and 60% for SC/ST/Women category.

The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) Component:

  • For the Non-beneficiary orientated sub-components/activities under CSS component to be implemented by the States/UTs, the entire project/unit cost will be shared between Centre and State as detailed below:
    • North Eastern & Himalayan States: 90?ntral share and 10% State share.
    • Other States: 60?ntral share and 40% State share.
    • Union Territories (with legislature and without legislature): 100?ntral share.
  • For the Beneficiary orientated i.e.  individual/group activities sub­components/activities under CSS component to be implemented by the States/UTs, the Government financial assistance of both Centre and State/UTs governments together will be limited to 40% of the project/unit cost for General category and 60% of the project/unit cost for SC/ST/Women. 
    • The Government financial assistance will in turn be shared between Centre and State/UTs in the following ratio:        
      •  The North Eastern & the Himalayan States: 90?ntral share and 10% State share.
      • Other States: 60?ntral share and 40% State share.
      • Union Territories (with legislature and without legislature): 100?ntral share (No UT Share).

Significance:

  • Address the critical gaps in the fisheries sector and realize its potential.
  • Augmenting fish production and productivity at a sustained average annual growth rate of about 9% to achieve a target of 22 million metric tons by 2024-25 through sustainable and responsible fishing practices.
  • Improving availability of certified quality fish seed and feed, traceability in fish and effective aquatic health management.
  • Creation of critical infrastructure including modernisation and strengthening of value chain.
  • Creation of direct gainful employment opportunities to about 15 lakh fishers, fish farmers, fish workers, fish vendors and other rural/urban populations in fishing and allied activities and about thrice this number as indirect employment opportunities including enhancement of their incomes.
  • Boost to investments in the fisheries sector and increase of competitiveness of fish and fisheries products.
  • Doubling  of fishers, fish farmers and fish workers incomes by 2024.
  • Social, physical and economic security for fishers and fish workers.

Blue Revolution

  • Blue revolution refers to the time of rapid growth of the worldwide aquaculture industry from the mid-1960s to the present day. For instance, The aquaculture industry has been growing at an average rate of 9% a year and India is one of the fastest growers.
  • In India, it was launched during the 7th Five Year Plan - 1985 to 1990, during which the government sponsored the Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA).
  • The collaboration with MNCs was encouraged through the Intensive Marine Fisheries Program, which was launched during the 8th Five Year Plan, from 1992-97.
  • Over a period of time, fishing harbours in Tuticorin, Porbandar, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair were established.
  • In order to increase the production as well as to do improvement in species, a number of research centres have also been set up.

Therefore, the rapid increase in the production of fish and marine product through a package program is known as the Blue Revolution.

  • History: The Blue Revolution, first began in China where fishing is an ancient activity. Today, China accounts for around two-thirds of the total aquaculture production worldwide by weight and roughly half by market value.

Impact:

  • Growth: As a result of the Blue Revolution, India recorded an average annual growth of 14.8% in production of fish and fish products in the last decade as compared to the global average of 7.5% in the same period.
  • Production: As the second largest fish producer, Indian Fisheries Sector production rose to 4.7 million tonnes (including 1.6 million tonnes from freshwater aquaculture today) from only 60,000 tonnes, 50 years ago.
  • Export potential: Fisheries, are in fact, India’s single largest agricultural export with a growth rate of 6-10% in the last five years (comparison to 2.5% in the farm sector). India’s fisheries accounts for exports worth more than 47,000 crore rupees.
    • Currently, the USA is the largest market for Indian seafood products with a share of 26.46% in terms of India’s exports of marine products.
  • Source of livelihood: Fishing is the primary source of livelihood for several communities in India.
  • Contribution to GDP: The fisheries and aquaculture production contribute around 1% to India’s GDP and over 5% to the agricultural GDP.

Hence, it can be said that the Blue Revolution brought improvement in aquaculture by adopting new techniques of fish breeding, rearing, marketing and export.

Way ahead: 

  • Till date, India is able to exploit only a fraction of the aquaculture potential available to it. For example, India uses only about 40% of the available ponds, tanks and other water bodies for freshwater aquaculture and 15% of total potential of brackish water resources.
  • Blue Revolution 2.0 or Neel Kranti Mission: The focus of the Blue Revolution 2.0 is on development and management of fisheries. This covers inland fisheries, aquaculture, marine fisheries including deep sea fishing, mariculture and all activities undertaken by the National Fisheries Development Board.
    • Targets:
      • Transforming the fisheries sector as a modern industry with special focus on new technologies and processes.
      • Doubling the income of fishers and fish farmers with special focus on increasing productivity and better post harvest marketing infrastructure including e-commerce and other technologies and global best innovations.
      • Ensuring inclusive participation of fishers and fish farmers in the income enhancement.
      • Tripling export earnings by 2020 with focus on benefits flow to fishers and fish farmers.
      • Enhancing food and nutritional security of the country.

National Fisheries Development Board

  • The National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) was established in 2006 as an autonomous organization under the administrative control of the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • It aims to enhance fish production and productivity in the country and to coordinate fishery development in an integrated and holistic manner.
  • The Board works under the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1625314

Image Source: pmmodiyojana.in