pradhan-mantri-awaas-yojana

CONTEXT

The Centre has withdrawn Chhattisgarh from the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin with immediate effect. This will mean Chhattisgarh will lose on development work worth more than Rs 11,000 crore annually.

PRADHAN MANTRI AWAAS YOJANA- GRAMIN (PMAY-G)

Objective: The erstwhile rural housing scheme Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was restructured to Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) in 2016 to achieve the objective of “Housing for All” by 2022

Implementation: Ministry of Rural development.

Target: To provide a pucca house to all rural families with basic amenities, who are either homeless or living in kutcha or dilapidated houses by the end of March 2022.

Who are eligible to become beneficiaries

  •  People belonging to SCs/STs
  • Freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST categories
  • Widows or next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action
  • Ex servicemen & retired members of the paramilitary forces
  • Disabled persons and minorities.

Automatic Inclusion is provided for-

  • Households without shelter
  • Destitute / living on alms
  • Manual scavengers
  • Primitive tribal groups
  • Legally released bonded labourer

Identification of Beneficiaries

  • There is a three stage validation process for identification of beneficiaries under the scheme ensuring total transparency and objectivity.
  • Socio Economic Caste Census 2011
  • The SECC data captures specific deprivation related to housing among households. The data of households that are houseless and living in 0, 1 and 2 kutcha wall and kutcha roof houses can be segregated and targeted.
  •  Gram Sabha & Geo-tagging.
  • The list will be presented to Gram Sabha to identify beneficiaries who have been assisted before or who have become ineligible due to other reasons. The finalised list will be published.
  • Annual list of beneficiaries will be identified from the total list through participatory process by the Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha will need to justify in writing with reasons for any alteration of priority in the original list.

Funding

  • The cost of the assistance provided is shared between Central & State Governments in the ratio 60:40 in plain areas & 90:10 for North Eastern and hilly states.

KEY PROVISIONS

  • There has been increase in minimum size of the house to 25 m2 (from 20 m2) with a hygienic cooking space.
  • The increase in unit assistance from Rs. 70,000 to Rs. 1.20 lakh in plain and from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 1.30 lakh in hilly states has been done
  • Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G), MGNREGA or any other source of funding is converged to leverage the assistance for construction of toilets
  • Different Government programmers are also to be attempted for Convergence for piped drinking water, electricity connection, LPG gas connection etc. 

Monitoring of the scheme-

  • Awaas App—It is a mobile application is used to monitor real time, evidence based progress of house construction through date and time stamped and geo referenced photographs of the house.
  •  It  is to be carried out through an end to end e-Governance model Using Awaas Soft and AwaasApp. AwaasApp
  •   All payments to beneficiaries is to be trough DBT to beneficiary’s Bank/Post office accounts registered in AwaasSoft MIS.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SCHEME

  • About  55% of the target for the construction has been completed.
  • About  1.27 crore had been built by January 2021, of the 2.28 crore houses to be built for the rural poor
  • Almost 85% of beneficiaries have been sanctioned money
  • Many states provided employment to their migrant labourers during lock down thus it has helped in increased employment generation

PRADHAN MANTRI AWAAS YOJANA-URBAN (PMAY-U)

Implementation Agency-  Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

KEY PROVISIONS

  • It aims to ensure a pucca house to eligible urban poor including the Slum Dwellers to addresses Urban housing shortage among the Urban Poor 
  • The scheme includes the entire urban area comprising of Statutory Towns, Notified Planning Areas, Development Authorities, Special Area Development Authorities, Industrial Development Authorities or any such authority under State legislation that is entrusted with the functions of urban planning & regulations.
  • Basic amenities like toilet, water supply, electricity and kitchen are provided to all houses under PMAY(U) 
  • The Mission provides for the ownership of houses in the name of female members or in joint name, thus  promoting women empowerment 
  • Sections of people like  differently abled persons, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minority, single women, transgender and other weaker & vulnerable sections of the society are given preference under the scheme

FOUR VERTICALS UNDER THE SCHEME

 

CHALLENGES

  • The report by the Technical Group highlighted the issue of housing shortage (lack in number of houses to accommodate the population of an area).
  • Scarcity of land -Adequate land is not available for building new housing units.
  • Land records -  slum dwellers & people in ancestral homes generally are unlikely to possess title documents that are essential to avail benefits under the scheme
  • Land records are under control of the revenue department of the state, whereas housing is a separate agency.
  • The distorted rental market is another challenge for effective implementation of scheme
  • According to the varied reports, there are about 10 million vacant houses which are either un-utilised or under utilised
  • Rather than offering it on rent, owners of those vacant houses prefer to leave their house vacant, because of the fear of losing their property to tenants

WAY FORWARD

  • Land records- It should be made easier for citizens to get legal documents to their land & property by simplification of process of updating of property records by state agencies
  • More credit should be made available to people to upgrade their congested houses to resolve the issue of land scarcity.
  • To incentivize developers to in-situ rehabilitation of slums,Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) should be done
  •  No eviction guarantee to individual households who do not have legal titles would encourage them to invest money & upgrade their shelter thus ensuring security of tenure
  • There is a need for push to the rental reforms by the states to  balance the interests of tenants with the protection of rights of property owners

SOURCE- Click Here

 

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