Physics Nobel Prize Won By Scientist - By Jatin Verma

Physics Nobel Prize Won By Scientist

Updated on 9 October, 2019

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A Canadian-American cosmologist and two Swiss scientists won this year's Nobel Prize in Physics for exploring the evolution of the universe and discovering a new kind of planet, with implications for that nagging question: Does life exist only on earth.

  • This year’s Nobel Prize in Physics rewards new understanding of the Universe’s structure and history, and the first discovery of a planet orbiting a solar-type star outside our solar system.
  • Dr. Peebles, Cosmologist, will collect one half of the 9 million kronor ($918,000) cash award. Dr. Mayor, who is an astrophysicist, and Dr. Queloz, an astronomer, will share the other half.
Physics Nobel Prize Won By Scientist James Peebles discoveries 
  • The Canadian – American Cosmologist James Peebles, 84, an emeritus professor at Princeton University, won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics for exploring the evolution of the universe.
  • Dr. Peebles theoretical framework about the cosmos and its billions of galaxies and galaxy clusters amounted to the foundation of our modern understanding of the universe's history, from the Big Bang to the present day.
  • He had contributed several discoveries in the field of physical cosmology for which he is awarded the prize. 
  • His discoveries are as follows In 1987, Peebles proposed the Primordial Isocurvature Baryon Model which explains the development of the early Universe.
  • He is also known for the Ostriker – Peebles criterion that related to the stability of galactic formation 
  • He has made significant contributions towards cosmic microwave background radiation, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, dark energy and dark matter. He was the pioneer in the theory of cosmic structure formation.
Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz Discoveries
  • Swiss star-gazers Michel Mayor, 77, and Didier Queloz, 53, both of the University of Geneva, were honored for finding an exoplanet a planet outside our solar system that orbits a sun-like star, with implications for that nagging question: Does life exist only on earth? 
  • Both, Mayor and Queloz were credited with having “started a revolution in astronomy” notably with the discovery of exoplanet 51 Pegasi B, a gaseous ball comparable with Jupiter, in 1995 at a time when no one knew whether exoplanets existed or not.
  • Mayor and Queloz pioneered the path that will allow our generation to address one of the most exciting questions in science: Are we alone? 
About Exoplanet 51 pegasi b
  • 51 Pegasi b, later formally named Dimidium, is an extrasolar planet approximately 50 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus. 
  • It was the first exoplanet to be discovered orbiting a main-sequence star, the Sun-like 51 Pegasi and marked a breakthrough in astronomical research. 
  • It is the prototype for a class of planets called hot Jupiters.
  • In 2017, traces of water were discovered in the planet's atmosphere.
About Nobel Award:
  • The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895.
  • The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.
  • In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not being a Nobel Prize, has become commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics.
  • The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, economics and activism for peace.
  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
  • The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature, and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
  • The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.
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