Political System can be defined as the process of formation of an official government who takes legal decisions for the country. These political systems vary from country to country. Few types of these systems are mentioned below:
- Dictatorship: It is a form of government in which the country is ruled by a single person or a group through some kind of force. Single person or group possesses absolute power with no toleration of independent media or political pluralism.
- Democracy: It is a form of government which allows equal participation of citizens of the country in choosing their political representatives for governance.
- Monarchy (crown rule): It is a form of government in which a country is ruled by a king or queen and reign is passed on to next generations.
- Totalitarian: It is a form of government in which the leader of the country assumes total control of every aspect of their citizens’ life by any means.
- Theocracy: It is a form of government in which the priest is the leader of the country and rules in the name of the God or religion.
- Republic: It is a form of government in which the country is governed by the elected representatives of the citizens.
- Anarchy (absence of government): It is a situation in which a country does not have a defined government or representatives. People do not follow any set of rules and regulations, they reject the hierarchy.
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic country which follows the Parliamentary form of government which is also known as Westminster model of government or Cabinet government or Responsible government. This form of government is prevalent in Britain, Japan, Canada and India among others.
Another form being called the Presidential form of government also known as fixed executive form of government is prevalent in USA, Brazil, Russia, SriLanka among others.
ELEMENTS OF PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM IN INDIA
- Bicameral legislature: System may be either bicameral (two houses of the parliament) or unicameral (single house of the parliament). India follows a bicameral legislature in which the members of the Lower House (Lok sabha) are elected by the people and members of Upper house (Rajya sabha) by elected representatives.
- The President can dissolve the Lok Sabha on recommendation of the Prime Minister while Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and cannot be dissolved.
- Nominal and Real Executives: There are two parts of the executive in India, nominal executive, and real executive. The President, the Head of the State is the nominal executive.
- Theoretically, the Constitution of India vested all the executive powers in the President of India. But, in practice, are actually used by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is the real executive.
- Majority Party Rule: The party which wins majority seats in the elections of the Lower House forms the government. The President appoints the leader as the Prime Minister and the other ministers on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
- The President may invite a coalition of parties to form the government, in case no party got a clear majority.
- Collective Responsibility: The council of ministers is collectively responsible to the parliament. The lower house of parliament can dissolve the government by exercising the no confidence motion.
- Opposition: Party who gets the second highest vote counts in elections forms an opposition party. The opposition plays a crucial role in keeping a check on the ruling government.
- Secrecy: The members of the executive follow the principle of secrecy in official legal matters of the country. Ministers take oaths of secrecy before entering their office.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PARLIAMENTARY & PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS
- Legislative and executive work cooperatively while the judiciary is independent.
- Two executives are present: Nominal (President) and Real (Prime minister).
- Executive is accountable to parliament.
- Lower house can be dissolved before completion of its term.
- No confidence motion can be passed against the government.
- All three organs work independent of each other.
- The President is the chief executive.
- Executive is not accountable to the government.
- Lower house cannot be dissolved, ministers will serve their term.
- No provision for no confidence motion, government will serve its term.
Also read: European Parliament’s Resolution On The CAA
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