NewsThe latest periodic labour force survey (PLFS) data published by the NSSO shows female participation in the workforce has declined More in News
- Latest NSSO data shows female participation in the workforce has declined further to 23.3 percent for 2017-18
- This means that over three out of four women over the age of 15 in India are neither working nor seeking work.
- The age of 15 is the cut-off used for global comparisons by the International Labour Organization.
- India’s low LFPR is a matter of concern as Just nine countries around the world, including Syria and Iraq, now have a fewer proportion of working women than India
- The further fall since then comes mainly from rural areas, female LFPR crashed by seven percentage points, while male LFPR remained roughly the same.
- This would imply that they are most likely running the house and taking care of children.
- However, for some, fall in women’s workforce participation is explained by higher rates of higher education enrolment, indicating that more young women are in higher education rather than working or looking for jobs
- Among Indian states, Bihar has by far the lowest rates of female workforce participation, while the southern and eastern states do better.
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- The data points to a fall in working rates for older women.
- LFPR for women aged 15-29 fell by eight percentage points between 2011-12 and 2017-18 to 16.4%,
- LFPR for women fell by at least seven percentage points for every age bracket between 30-50
- The decline was highest among women aged 35-39 years (LFPR for this age bracket fell 9 percentage points to 33.5%)
A large proportion of self-employed women workers were also engaged in outsourced manufacturing work, typically characterised by low earnings, long hours of work and lack of any form of social protection."
- Among those in the workforce, rural women work overwhelmingly in agriculture. It is likely that non-farm jobs are rare, especially for women.
- This offer a clue to understanding the falling rates of rural workforce participation.
- The most common jobs for urban women are of garment workers, domestic cleaners and ‘directors and chief executives.
- Domestic work, house cleaning and salespeople dominate the urban sector for women.
- The only exception is the teaching profession, which makes it to the top 10 most common jobs for women.
- The gap in the earnings of men and women in regular, salaried jobs, without accounting for differences in hours worked and educational qualifications was significant.
- In rural areas, a male salaried employee earned nearly 1.4 to 1.7 times a female salaried employee, while in urban areas, salaried men earned 1.2 to 1.3 times a salaried woman.
- The average working Indian woman works a longer week than her developing country counterparts.
- The average employed Indian woman worked 44.4 hours per week (in the April-June 2018 period) as against the developing country average of 35-36 hours, as per ILO estimates.
- But in both developed and developing countries, women perform the vast majority of unpaid household and care work.
Role of caste and Religion
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- Among men, caste and religion make no real difference to workforce participation rates.
- But among women, Muslim women have the lowest LFPR while among Hindu women, forward caste women have the lowest LFPR, implying that social norms and religious conservatism might play a role in women being “allowed" to work.