Context: In August 2022, India updated its National Determined Contributions (NDC’s) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The updation to National Determined Contributions were approved by Cabinet. It is a step towards India’s goal to reach net-zero emissions by 2070.

About Paris Agreement:

2015 Paris Agreement is legally binding international climate treaty, approved by leaders of 196 countries in Conference of Parties (CoP21)

About Nationally Determined Contributions:

  • They are plans submitted by countries to work towards their climate goals. Every signatory to the Paris Agreement is required to prepare, communicate, and maintain the NDC’s to achieve climate action plan.
  • They embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
  • Paris Agreement requests each country to outline and communicate their post 2020 climate actions, known as their NDC’s.
  • They are submitted every 5 years to the UNFCCC secretariat.


2015 India’s National Determined Contributions

2022 India’s Nationally Determined Contributions

1. Emission Intensity

 Reduction of 33-35% from 2005 levels

Reduction of 45% from 200 levels.

2. Share of non-fossil fuels in installed electricity capacity

40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil sources.

50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil sources.

3. Carbon Sink

Creation of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional sink through afforestation

No change.

Measures to be taken to achieve updated Targets:

  1. Low-cost Funds: India plans to achieve 50% cumulative electricity power installed capacity from non-fossil-fuel based energy resources. To accomplish this, India has use low- cost funds from international forums such as Green Climate Funds (GCF), which is set up as part of Paris Agreement.
  2. Environmental Movement: India has launched LiFE (Lifestyle for the Environment) on Environment Day (5th June) to promote conscious lifestyle that focusses on ‘mindful and deliberate utilization’ of products and commodities.
  3. Increase in Forest Cover: Forest cover in India stands at 21.71% of total geographical area compared to 21.67% and 21.54% in 2017.
  4. Ethanol Blending: India has recently achieved E10 Fuel (10% of Ethanol) ahead of its target.

India’s NDC do not bind itself to any sector-specific mitigation obligation or action. India’s goal is to reduce overall emission intensity and improve energy efficiency and simultaneously protecting vulnerable sectors of economy and segment of society.