• Mangroves are various large extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics - mainly between latitudes 25 N and 25 S.
  • Mangroves are salt tolerant trees (halophytes) adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • It is one of the key agreements adopted during the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. 
  • The three objectives of the CBD are: 
  • conservation of biological diversity,
  • the sustainable use of its components, 
  • fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources.
  • Pursuant to the ratification of the CBD by India on 18 February 1994, several steps were initiated to meet the commitments under the Convention, and to realize the opportunities offered by the Convention.
  • As an obligation under Article 26 of the CBD, India has to submit National Report (NR) to CBD Secretariat on measures taken for the implementation of the Convention once in four years. So far, five cycles of national reporting have been completed (1998, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2014) 
  • National report(NR) requires that parties report on the progress made towards their NBTs as well as national contribution towards the achievement of the Global Aichi Biodiversity Targets.