Mangroves are the trees & bushes growing below the high water level of spring tides, which exhibits remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance. Basically Littoral evergreen land plants growing on sheltered shores typically on tidal flats, deltas, estuaries, bays etc. where abundant silt is brought down by rivers

  • Exhibits viviparity mode of reproduction e. seeds germinate in the trees itself, before falling to ground (An adaptive mechanism to overcome problem of germination in saline water)
  • Produces pneumatophores (Blind or arial roots) to overcome respiration problem in anaerobic soil conditions as these aerial roots enable plants to breathe air through waterlogged soil

Some Mangroves secrete excess salt through their leaves (form crystals of salt on back of leaves) & some block absorption of salt at their roots. Produce stilt/Prop roots, which emerged from main trunk of the tree above ground level i.e. aerial pitchfork-like extensions from the trunk which grow downwards and anchor themselves in the soil trapping sediment which helps to stabilize the tree, subjected to tides and flooding