Landslide Risk Reduction And Resilience - Union Minister of State for Home Affairs, will inaugurate the 1st International Conference on
- The conference which is being organized by the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), is the first of its kind on this theme in the country and would be highly pertinent to disaster management in the hill States.
About the “Landslides Risk Reduction and Resilience" conference :
- The conference aims to bring together all the stakeholders including relevant ministries/organizations/universities/departments and experts to discuss, debate and disseminate practically useful knowledge, information, experiences, and innovations for landslides risk reduction and resilience at national and international levels.
- The conference will develop a road map towards landslide risk reduction and resilience through networking, collaboration and coordination amongst different stakeholders.
- Scientists, engineers, technologists, planners, developers, administrators, policy and decision-makers from different States of the country as well as other countries will participate and share their views at the conference.
- More than 50 Knowledge partners including International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), ITC Netherlands, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (UN ESCAP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC), International Association for Promoting Geo-ethics (IAPG), International Geographical Union (IGU), Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs), Geological Survey of India (GSI), CSIR, IITs, Universities, UGC, AICTE, Revenue and Disaster Management departments, Prasar Bharti and many other relevant stakeholders are supporting NIDM in organizing this international event.
Causes of landslides- Landslides are caused by these three main events—
- Slopes saturated by water: Intense rainfall and snowmelt and seepage often leave land surfaces saturated. Flooding results and water overflowing its channels often wipe out land surfaces to cause mudflows.
- Seismic activity: Earth tremors, earthquakes and natural seismic activity that cause the earth to rumble or shake (vibrations) can weaken the bonding of bedrock and expose the
earth to landslides.
- Volcanic activity: Lava from eruptions has the potential of melting snow here high rates. A combination of melted snow, debris, volcanic ash and soils flowing rapidly along a slope can result in catastrophic landslides.
- Geological: Weathered rock, sheared, fissured or jointed rock material are known causes of landslides. Contrasting earth material and low adhesiveness of the rock also cause landslides. This is so because cohesive rock material often holds itself in place and are less prone to weathering and movement.
- Morphological: All forms of erosion such as fluvial, water, wave, glacial along a slope may cause landslides and other types of flows. Deposition from erosion may also cause a buildup of earth material (or debris) at places that may eventually give way in the form of landslides. Weathering is also a major cause of landslides. It is a powerful process of weakening debris and earth material on the surface of the slope.
- Humans: Activities such as mining, construction, farming, deforestation, irrigation, reservoirs and dams, and the like, all contribute to exposing the surface of the earth and causing landslides. For example, in many mining communities along slopes, tunnels and deep wells are dug into the ground and often left unfilled. With time, air and water get in and may result in the earth giving way. Such activities also expose lands to weathering and massive erosion which all end up causing some types of landslides.
- Loss of lives: Landslides and mudslides kill between 25 and 50 people every year in the USA alone. Globally, it is believed that the number of deaths is highly underestimated. In total, 2,620 fatal landslides were recorded worldwide during the 2004 and 2010 period of the study, causing a total of 32,322 recorded fatalities.
- Destruction of property: It will lead to loss of property to a large extent. Forex- In 1980, Mount St Helens in Washington USA erupted and causes a rock debris landslide. The landslide traveled about 14 miles, wiping away highway bridges, buildings, and roads.
- Economic costs: Landslides bring huge costs to communities and cities affected, by cleaning up and rebuilding destroyed infrastructure. In 2005 it cost the USA $3.5 billion in damage repair
- Destruction of the natural environment:: Debris flows usually uproot trees and wipe out vegetation and wildlife in its path.
National Mitigation Guidelines for Landslides
In the guidelines, the following nine major areas have been identified for systematic and coordinated management of landslide hazards:
- Landslide hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment;
- Multi-hazard conceptualization;
- Landslide remediation practice;
- Research and development, monitoring and early warning;
- Knowledge network and management;
- Capacity building and training;
- Public awareness and education;
- Emergency preparedness and response;
- Regulation and enforcement.
- Reinforcement of floor slabs and external walls in existing buildings.
- Installation of drainage pipes for rainwater, slope drainage.
- Planting of slopes that are vulnerable to landslides with deep-rooted trees and shrubs.
- Drainage and/or grading of slope profiles increase the shear resistance
- Supporting structures such as anchors and piles (pinning of the slip plane) can restrain landslides
- Removal of material in the 'driving' section, or material deposition in the 'braking' section, can prevent further descent of the sliding body
Planning measures and local protection
- The use of slopes prone to landslides must be avoided or uses suitably modified
- Hydraulic and electrical connections must be flexible.
Few recent government’s measures
- IIT Mandi in collaboration with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) conducted a five-day training program on 'Landslide Mitigation and Detailed Project Report Preparation' recently. The training program aimed at creating awareness about the potential hazards and the various risk mitigation measures for landslides by explaining the fundamental concepts of slope stability and assisting the participants in Detailed Project Report preparation.
- Under Pre-disaster studies, GSI (Geological Survey of India) has already formulated and carried out a National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (NLSM) Programme on macro-scale (1:50,000 scale) in various parts of the country including NER and Sikkim.
- Approximately 44,600 sq. km area has been completed under the ongoing National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Project (NLSM) in all the states of NER, except Arunachal Pradesh.