Do Mission Shakti Violates International Space Laws & Treaties

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By admin March 29, 2019 15:57

Do Mission Shakti Violates International Space Laws & Treaties The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is responsible for promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. UNOOSA serves as the secretariat for the General Assembly’s only committee dealing exclusively with international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space: the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). UNOOSA maintains a 24-hour hotline as the United Nations focal point for satellite imagery requests during disasters Manages the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). UNOOSA is the current secretariat of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG). UNOOSA is located at the United Nations Office at Vienna, Austria. What is Space law? Space law can be described as the body of law governing space-related activities. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is the forum for the development of international space law. The Committee has concluded five international treaties and five sets of principles on space-related activities. The treaties commonly referred to as the “five United Nations treaties on outer space” are: The “Outer Space Treaty” Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Adopted by the General Assembly on 27 January 1967, entered into force on 10 October 1967. The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles:

  • the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind
  • outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
  • outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
  • States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner
Read Also:-All You Need To Know About Indian Space Program The “Rescue Agreement” Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space Adopted by the General Assembly on 22 April 1968, entered into force on 3 December 1968. Provides that States shall take all possible steps to rescue and assist astronauts in distress and promptly return them to the launching State, and that States shall, upon request, provide assistance to launching States in recovering space objects that return to Earth outside the territory of the Launching State. The “Liability Convention” Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects Adopted by the General Assembly on 29 M the Liability Convention Provides that a launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space objects on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft, and liable for damage due to its faults in space. The “Registration Convention” Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space Adopted by the General Assembly on 14 January 1975, entered into force on 15 September 1976 The “Moon Agreement” Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 1979, entered into force on 11 July 1984. The five declarations and legal principles are: 1. The “Declaration of Legal Principles”
  • Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space
  • General Assembly resolution 1962 (XVIII) of 13 December 1963
2. The “Broadcasting Principles”
  • The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting
  • General Assembly resolution 37/92 of 10 December 1982
3. The “Remote Sensing Principles”
  • The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space
  • General Assembly resolution 41/65 of 3 December 1986
4. The “Nuclear Power Sources” Principles
  • The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space
  • General Assembly resolution 47/68 of 14 December 1992
5. The “Benefits Declaration”
  • The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries
  • General Assembly resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996
Out of the five United Nations treaties relating to activities in outer space, India has ratified four and signed one. ‘Ratification’ means a country must enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to the treaties within a given time-frame. As a signatory to the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 1972: India has an absolute liability to pay compensation for damage caused by its space object on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft in flight. The only legal regime governing the space industry in India is determined by 1. The Constitution of India, 1950, 2. The Satellite Communications Policy, 2000 and the 3. Revised Remote Sensing Data Policy, 2011. Article 51 and Article 73 of the Constitution foster respect for international law and treaty obligations with no legal obligation attached to them. Make in India’ campaign:
  • Outsourced satellite manufacturing to a private sector enterprise for the first time.
  • ISRO signed a contract with an Indian start-up to launch a spacecraft, which will attempt to land on the Moon.
Draft Geospatial Information Regulation Bill, 2016
  • To police acquisition, publication and distribution of geospatial information of India
  • Need for a Space Act that would help the government deal with legal issues arising from objects put up in space and for what happens to them in orbit, or because of them.
  • Today, there are 22 nations that have domestic space laws,
  • Australia, Japan and South Korea are the only Asia-Pacific regions that have implemented international conventions through national laws.
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admin
By admin March 29, 2019 15:57