Context: The United States is to collaborate with India to work towards installing 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030.


  • 40 leaders, including the Prime Minister of India, were recently invited to the event to underscore the urgency of stronger climate action.
  • The summit is seen as a key milestone on the road to the United Nations Climate Change Conference, Conference of the parties 26 (COP 26) in November 2021, Glasgow, heartland.
  • As a climate-responsible developing country, India welcomes partners to create templates of sustainable development in India but can also help other developing countries who need affordable access to green finance and clean technologies. With this aim, the partnership with the US was launched.
  • The goal of the partnership would be to: 
    • Mobilize finance and speed clean energy deployment; 
    • Demonstrate and scale innovative clean technologies needed to decarbonize sectors, including industry, transportation, power and buildings; and 
    • Build capacity to measure, manage and adapt to the risks of climate related impacts.

Current status of Renewable energy in India

  • Currently, India’s installed power capacity is projected to be 476 GW by 2021-22, and is expected to rise to at least 817 GW by 2030.

The Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue (CAFMD)

  • This was one of the main tracks of the U.S.-India Agenda 2030 Partnership announced by the PM of India and President of US at the Leaders Summit on Climate in April 2021.
  • It would serve as a “powerful avenue” for U.S.-India collaboration, and would be based on three pillars.
    • One would be a “climate action pillar” which would have joint proposals looking at ways in which emissions could be reduced in the next decade. 
    • The second pillar would be setting out a roadmap to achieving the 450GW in transportation, buildings and industry. 
    • The final pillar, or the ''Finance Pillar” would involve collaborating on attracting finance to deploy 450 GW of renewable energy and demonstrate at scale clean energy technologies. 
    • Six banks in the U.S., have already committed to “investing” $4.5 trillion in the next decade towards clean energy.
  • It will provide both countries an opportunity to renew collaborations on climate change while addressing financing aspects and deliver climate finances primarily as grants and concessional finance as envisaged under the Paris Agreement.
  • A key mission is to build global support for ‘Net Zero’, or carbon neutrality, which is when more carbon is sucked out from the atmosphere or prevented from being emitted than what a country emits and is critical to ensuring that the planet doesn’t heat up an additional half a degree by 2100. 

India's progress on Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

  • Despite developmental challenges, India has been taking many bold steps on clean energy, energy efficiency, afforestation and biodiversity.
  • It is among the few countries whose NDCs are all 2 degree- Celsius compatible.
  • India's per capita carbon footprint is 60% lower than the global average as per a report by the United Nations.
  • The emissions in the country grew 1.4% in 2019, much lower than its average of 3.3% per year over the last decade.

Current status of global emissions

  • Five years after the Paris agreement, all states have submitted their national contributions to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
  • The contributions are radically insufficient to reach the well below 2 degrees Celsius limit and are even further from the 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature limit identified in the Paris Agreement.
  • Besides India, only Bhutan, the Philippines, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Morocco and Gambia were complying with the accord.
  • China has the highest GHG emissions (30%) while the US contributes 13.5% and the EU 8.7%.

Related Facts

Some Measures taken by India to control its Emissions

  • Bharat Stage (BS) VI norms- These are emission control standards put in place by the government to keep a check on air pollution.
  • National Solar Mission- It is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India's energy security challenge.
  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy 2018- The main objective of the policy is to provide a framework for promotion of large grid connected wind-solar photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems for optimal and efficient utilization of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure and land.
  • National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)- It is a long-term, time-bound, national-level strategy to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner with the objective of a comprehensive management plan to prevent, control and abate air pollution, in addition to augmenting the air quality monitoring network across the country.
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)- 
    • The aim of the program is to create awareness among the representatives of the public, different agencies of the government, scientists, industry and the communities on the threat posed by climate change under steps to counter it. 
    • There are eight national missions that form the core of NAPCC including: 
      • National solar mission, 
      • National mission for enhanced energy efficiency, 
      • National water mission, 
      • National mission on sustainable habitat, 
      • National mission for sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, 
      • National Mission for A Green India, 
      • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, 
      • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change.
  • All these and many other initiatives helped India in cutting CO2 emissions by 164 million kg.

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