In News: The Ministry of Culture has nominated dossiers of Dholavira: A Harappan City, and Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.



Dholavira: A Harappan City

  • The City of Dholavira located in Khadir island of the Rann of Kutchch belonged to the mature Harappan phase.
  • Today what is seen as a fortified quadrangular city set in harsh arid land, was once a thriving metropolis for 1200 years.
  • This city lay between two seasonal streams, the Mansar in the north and Manhar in the south, and had three distinct zones-the Upper, Middle and Lower Towns.
  • The First, the citadel, consisting of enclosures identified as a castle and a bailey (by excavators), having massive mud-brick walls flanked by dressed stones.
  • To the north of the citadel was the quadrangular middle town having an area identified as the ceremonial ground or stadia.
  • The latter served as a transition from the citadel to the middle and was accessed from the citadel through a grand gateway on its northern wall.
  • Dholavira shows large scale use of dressed stone in construction and a robust water harvesting system.

Monuments of the Deccan Sultanate

  • It is a serial property consisting of four components that constitute the most representative, most authentic and best conserved examples of Deccan Sultanate monuments in India.
  • The series demonstrates the exemplary convergence of national and international styles of Islamic architecture and their intersections with the prevalent Hindu architecture of the period southern Indian in present day Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The contributions of the Deccan Sultanate to the arts and architecture of India is impressive with iconic Indo Islamic monuments constructed in Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur and Hyderabad.

Group of Monuments at Mandu

  • Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district. It is located in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh, India, 35 km from Dhar city.
  • In the 11th century, Mandu was the subdivision of the Tarangagadh or Taranga kingdom. This fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 km (62 mi) from Indore is celebrated for its architecture.
  • Therefore, the MP government submitted a proposal for inclusion in the World Heritage List of 2019 like Jahaz Mahal, Roopmati Pavilion etc.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

  • It is Headquartered at Paris,France.
  • The UNESCO seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
  • This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.
  • It also seeks to build peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture.
  • It contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals defined in Agenda 2030, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015.

About World Heritage Sites:

  • They are any of various areas or objects inscribed on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage List. 
  • The sites are designated as having “outstanding universal value” under the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. 
  • This document was adopted by UNESCO in 1972 and formally took effect in 1975 after having been ratified by 20 countries.
  • There are three types of sites: cultural, natural, and mixed.
  • India currently has 38 sites : 30 Cultural, 7 Natural and 1 Mixed.
  • Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim is the only Mixed Site in India.

World Heritage Committee:

  • The Committee is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. 
  • It has the final say on whether a property is inscribed on the World Heritage List. 
  • It examines reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties and asks States Parties to take action when properties are not being properly managed. It also decides on the inscription or deletion of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger.


Recently added in World Heritage List


The pink city, Jaipur


Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai


Historic walled city , Ahmedabad


  1. Capitol Complex,Modern architecture, chandigarh
  2. Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar 


Khangchendzonga National Park,Sikkim