Context: India and China marked the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between the two countries, a landmark event.

Background: On April 1, 1950, India became the first non-Communist country in Asia to establish diplomatic ties with China.

  • Boosting people-to-people ties: Both countries agreed last year to hold 70 events - 35 each in India and China - to mark the occasion but the plan had to be put on hold due to the pandemic. 
    • The agreement was reached when Modi and President Xi Jinping met for their second informal summit at Mamallapuram in Tamil Nadu in October. 

Recent development: China has asked India not to use the country’s name while referring to the coronavirus, and said that it could stigmatise the country and harm international relations. 

  • Beijing has strongly objected to the terms “China virus” or “Wuhan Virus”, and had engaged in a diplomatic spat with the United States over the origin of COVID-19 earlier this month.

Evolution of India- China Relations:


China invades and occupies Tibet, the two countries started sharing a common border. 

Tibetan regarded India where Buddhism originated as their holy land. It was a concern for China.

1 April, 1950

India became the first non-socialist bloc country to establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China.

29 April 1954

Nehru and Zhou sign the Panchsheel treaty.

Hindi-Chini Bhai-Bhai slogan was given.

India acknowledged Chinese rule in Tibet Mutual respect for each other's territorial 

5 Panchsheel factors:

  1. Integrity and sovereignty; 
  2. Mutual non-aggression; 
  3. Mutual non-interference; 
  4. Equality and mutual benefit; 
  5. Peaceful co-existence.


China unleashes crackdown in Tibet on Buddhist protesters, India gives asylum to the Dalai Lama.


China invades India in Ladakh, and across the McMahon Line in the then North-East Frontier Agency. After the conflict, relations are badly hit.


Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s landmark visit begins a new phase in bilateral relations. India-China relations normalized.


The signing of an Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control on the India-China Border Areas


India and China signed the Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation and also mutually decided to appoint Special Representatives (SRs) to explore the framework of a boundary settlement.

Following establishment of the mechanism of Special Representatives (SR) on the India-China Boundary Question in 2003, 21 rounds of talks have been held. 


The Sino-Indian Agreement on Political parameters and Guiding Principles for the settlement of the Boundary Question.

The two sides agreed to safeguard the interests of their settled populations in the border areas.” The term “settled populations” excluded Tawang.


An Agreement on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs (WMCC) was signed during the 15th Round of SR talks in New Delhi in January 2012. 


New Delhi and Beijing sign the border defence cooperation agreement which aims at maintaining peace along the Line of Actual Control. 


The two sides forge a Closer Developmental Partnership that forms the core of our bilateral relationship. The two sides also sign a MoU to open the Nathu La route for Kailash Mansarovar Yatra.


The two countries further agreed to “carry out annual visits and exchanges between the two Military Headquarters and neighbouring military commands, endeavour to operationalise the hotline between the two Military Headquarters.

Many of these suggested measures have not yet been implemented, most notably, the hotline between the two military headquarters.


President Xi visited India in October 2016 to participate in the BRICS Summit in Goa.


At the historic summit in Astana, India and Pakistan officially joined SCO as full-fledged members

August 2017

China and India in an intense militarized standoff in Doklam, a disputed area at the tri-junction of Bhutanese, Chinese, and Indian territories.


PM Modi attended the SCO Summit in Qingdao. 

Two agreements, relating to provision of hydrological information of the Brahmaputra river, and on phytosanitary requirements for rice exports, were signed.


The 21st round of talks between Mr. Ajit Doval, National Security Advisor and Mr. Wang Yi.

The seventh edition of the bilateral joint military exercise, Hand-in-Hand, was held in December 2018 in Chengdu.

April 2018

Wuhan Summit

October, 2019

Mamallapuram Summit: Chinese President Xi Jinping visits India for second informal summit with Prime Minister Narendra Modi. 


Image Source: DNA India