Q.)The India US relationship has reached new heights in the past few years but the road ahead has new challenges for India. Comment.

Why this question:

New US President recently assumed his role in the office.

Key demand of the question:

The opportunities and challenges that India has in building a cordial relationship with the US during the Biden administration.


Comment- Pick out the main points on a subject and give your opinion, reinforcing your point of view using logic and reference to relevant evidence, including any wider reading you have done.


Briefly introduce the evolving India US ties.


In the first part, explain the opportunities that lie ahead for India- defence partnerships, economic engagement, Quad, etc.

In the next part, highlight the issues that will become challenges in the partnership between the two countries- CAA, Article 370, engagements with Russia, etc. 


Conclude with a way forward.

For Model Answer

The 21st century has seen the evolution of the Indo- US ties and the last few years have been phenomenal in their bilateral relations. The signing of the Indo- US Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2008, Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) in 2016, Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) in 2018, the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) in 2020 and the Quad have been some of the phenomenal achievements in the cooperation between the two countries. 

Recently, Mr. Joe Biden has assumed his office as the President of the US. This presents India with a series of opportunities for the development of the partnership as well as a few challenges.


  1. The key members, including Biden himself, have long experience of working with India. This presents a chance for India for the deep engagement required to tackle many outstanding issues.
  2. It is likely to solve the issue of work visas as Biden would be more accommodative in this area.
  3. Biden as a President would not focus much on publicly speaking out against Indian economic practices or be as bothered as Trump was by India’s trade surplus.
  4. With the US now preparing for greater spending, we should look for greater market access, which India is entitled to, under the WTO’s General Scheme of Preferences.
  5. Mr. Biden is likely to rebuild ties with Iran through the JCPOA which would relieve India of the threat of sanctions due to engagement in Iran.
  6. The US will continue to act firmly against China, opposing its extravagant territorial claims on its maritime borders with virtually every maritime neighbour.

Challenges Ahead

  1. Civil rights and democracy in India will continue to be an area of concern for the Biden presidency.
  2. His co-associates have been particularly vocal in several issues against Indian administration. For example, Jammu-Kashmir issue, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, communal and caste-based violence, actions against non-governmental organisations and media freedoms.
  3. Biden will favour a policy of engagement with Pakistan in order to deal with the Taliban. Also, Biden’s Pakistan policy is expected to be in good will as Pakistan has accorded him with one of its highest civilian honours, the Hilal-e-Pakistan.

Overall, therefore, a Biden administration will be a less abrasive and more traditional partner for India and is likely to seek continuity in deepening ties with India, particularly as it seeks to work with partners around the world to tackle global challenges and compete with China.