Q) The world’s largest vaccination drive in India against COVID 19 requires a multi pronged approach in addition to just the vaccinations. Discuss. 

Why this Question

Important part of GS paper- III. 

Key Demand of the Question:

Give a detailed account of components of successful vaccination drive and the current challenges in India. 


Discuss- back up the answer by carefully selected evidence to make a case for and against an argument, or point out the advantages and disadvantages of the given context and finally arrive at a conclusion.


Give an overview of the current vaccination programme against Covid19 going on in India. 


In the first part, highlight the components of a successful vaccination programme.

In the next part, highlight the current challenges in India that can limit the success of the vaccination drive. 


Conclude with a way forward

Model Answer


The world's largest vaccination programme for COVID-19 began on 16th January 2021 in India. It is India’s first adult vaccination drive. In the first phase of vaccination, the first 3 crore people to be vaccinated included the healthcare workers and frontline workers. The next phase which is the current phase focuses on vaccination among those above 60 years of age and those with comorbidities among the age group of 45-60. The Prime Minister of India said that India is entering a decisive phase of vaccination in the fight against COVID-19, with the approval of two made-in-India COVID-19 vaccines.

Components of a Successful Vaccination Programme 

  1. Vaccination- The first and foremost component of a successful vaccination programme is the vaccination itself. the government has to make sure that it reaches every individual so that the risk of further rise in cases minimises.
  2. Eliminating vaccine hesitancy- effective communication is required in order to resolve the confusions and to eliminate the vaccine hesitancy. This can be done through partnerships with civil society organisations, influential persons, etc.
  3. Educating people the government has to make sure that the people are aware of the vaccination programme and are willing to be a part of it. In addition to this, It is important To make people understand to follow the necessary precautions even after the vaccination.
  4. Keeping check- the government has to keep a check on limiting the spread of new variants of the virus especially those which are vaccine resistant. 
  5. Maintaining records- the government has to ensure that every vaccination is recorded along with the health conditions of the people for future uses.
  6. Preventing vaccine wastage: organised appointment for vaccinations, ensuring once opened, the vaccine is surely utilised and not wasted.
  7. People’s participation- Community partnership or janbhagidari should be emphasised. People who take the vaccine should know the word about its efficacy and security.
  8. Seamless flow of vaccines- India should continue the flow of vaccines to the areas where it is required.

Challenges to Successful Vaccination 

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy- it is the biggest challenge for any vaccination programme where people are not ready to take vaccines due to several reasons. 
  2. Infrastructural issues- for eg technical glitches in the Co-WIN app that is used for registering for the Covid 19 vaccination.
  3. Vaccine wastage- for instance each vial of covid vaccine contains 10 doses and they have to be used within 4 hours of opening. This leads to vaccine wastage.

India’s Covid-19 vaccine drive will be a monumental mission, not just in terms of vaccinating its own population, but also vaccinating a large part of the world thanks to its position as the world’s leading vaccine producer. Addressing the issues associated with the development and distribution of vaccines will augment the effort to efficiently get vaccines to hundreds of millions in the shortest period of time.