Q) Decarbonisation has become a buzzword. To ensure it does not remain just that but translates into effective action on the ground, a multidimensional, interdependent and interconnected approach is required. Comment. 

Why this question:

Important part of  GS paper- III. 

Key demand of the question:

Explain what decarbonisation is and why it is needed and the required measures for its implementation. 


Comment- Pick out the main points on a subject and give your opinion, reinforcing your point of view using logic and reference to relevant evidence, including any wider reading you have done.


Give a brief explanation about decarbonisation. 


In the first part, highlight the need for decarbonisation especially in the light of increasing climate change.

In the next part, highlight the measures needed for effective decarbonisation in India and the world. 


Conclude with the long term effects of decarbonisation. 

Model Answer

Global emissions have soared by two-thirds in the three decades since international climate talks began. To make the reductions required, a new approach that creates incentives for leading countries and industries to spark transformative technological revolutions is needed. One such method is decarbonisation. It literally means reduction of carbon. It is the conversion to an economic system that sustainably reduces and compensates the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂).

Need for Decarbonisation 

  1. Currently, a wide range of sectors – industrial, residential and transport – run largely on fossil fuels that emit CO₂. This acts as a GHG contributing to climate change. 
  2. It is essential since the demand for electric power from industries/ commercial sectors is high.
  3. It is necessary for the growth of clean energy technologies leading to lesser harm to the environment. 
  4. It is linked with several health benefits as the pollution in the form of Carbon dioxide causes severe health issues. 
  5. It is directly linked to the countries’ targets of achieving Net Zero emissions. 

Measures needed for Effective Decarbonisation 

  1. Development of newer technologies like electric vehicles that can reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. 
  2. Investment in development of cleaner fuels with lesser carbon dioxide emissions potential. 
  3. Creating mechanisms that facilitate inter-ministerial and inter-state collaboration within the country and multilateral cooperation internationally.
  4. Increasing the share of low-carbon energy sources, particularly renewables like solar, hydro and biomass (Biofuels) as well as nuclear which can greatly contribute in achieving zero emissions.
  5. Energy demand should be conserved by reducing wastage and losses and using it more efficiently.
  6. Challenges like Poorly designed planning systems, inadequate regulatory frameworks, and a lack of investment need to be tackled. 

Decarbonisation can be a potent tool to mitigate climate change and its consequences in the world in the long run.  Therefore, it is important that the world takes steps in this direction,  especially the developed countries and assists the developing and the underdeveloped world in facing this challenge.