In G20, Only India On Course To Meet 1.5 Degree Celsius Target - Brown to Green Report 2019 is released by the Climate Transparency on Monday (11th November)

About the Report:

  • The Brown to Green Report 2019 is the world’s most comprehensive review of G20 climate action. 


The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union (EU). Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.

The G20 has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.

India,China,Japan,U.S are some of Prominent members.

  • It provides concise and comparable information on G20 country mitigation action, finance and adaptation.
  • Developed by experts from 14 research organisations and NGOs from the majority of the G20 countries, the report covers 80 indicators. 
  • It informs policy makers and stimulates national debates.

Climate Transparency:

It is a global partnership that brings together experts from research organisations and NGOs in majority of the G20 countries.

It was co-founded under the leadership of Peter Eigen (Founder of Transparency International) and Alvaro Umaña (former Minister of Environment and Energy of Costa Rica Costa Rica) in late 2014.

Findings of Report:

  • India has the most ambitious NDC( Nationally Determined Targets) compared to its fair share of global emissions to limit global warming to 1.5 degree celsius. However, India still needs to act now to prepare sectors for stringent emission reductions
  • It also noted that India is currently investing most in renewable energy while Brazil and Germany are the only G20 countries with long-term renewable strategies. 
  • Brazil leads with 82.5% renewables, while Saudi Arabia, South Korea and South Africa lag behind with shares of only 0-5% in their respective total energy mix.
  • Though other countries such as China, Indonesia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, EU are projected to meet or surpass their NDC targets, however these are not their highest possible ambitions as required by the Paris Agreement.

About Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. 

The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change

  • The three G20 countries - South Korea, Canada and Australia - are the laggards who are off track from implementing their “already unambitious NDCs”.
  • The G20 nations CO2 emissions went up in all sectors in 2018, with the highest rise (4.1%) in the buildings sector compared to 2017. While power sector recorded an increase of 1.6%, the transport sector emissions increased by 1.2% in 2018.
  • The G20 countries provided more than $127 billion in fossil fuel subsidies in 2017. “Diverting only a fraction of these fossil fuel subsidies towards renewables could pay for the clean energy transition and reduce emissions significantly,”


Report noted that India is the only country among G20 nations that is close to 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise ‘pathway’ - a scenario which the scientific community has pitched for at this juncture to save the world from the disastrous consequences of average temperature rise.

However, India still needs to act now to prepare sectors for stringent emission reductions