important-amendments-in-indian-constitution

The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951

In June 1951, the Constitution (First Amendment) Act was passed, and the following Amendment in the Constitution was inserted :

(i) To Article 15, a new clause (4) was added:

(ii) clauses (2) and (6) of Article 19 were recast;

(iii) After Article 31, Article 31A and 31B were inserted;

(iv) For original Article 85, a new Article was substituted;

(v) In Article 87, clauses (1) and (2) were recast;

(vi) For the original Article 174, a new Article was substituted;

(vii) In Article 176, clauses (1) and (2) were recast:

(viii) Clause (1) of Article 341 was recast; and similarly, clause (1) of Article 342, sub-clause (a) of Article 342, sub-clause (a) of clause (3) of Article 372, and clause (1) of Article 376 was also recast;

(ix) After the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution, a Ninth Schedule was added and thirteen laws passed by State Legislatures were included in it so that those Acts might not be challenged in courts.

The main purpose of the Amendment was the removal of certain practical difficulties created by court decisions in several cases such as Kameshwar Singh vs. the State of Bihar, Romesh Thapar vs. State of Madras, Brij Bhusan vs. State of Delhi and Motilal vs. Government of Uttar Pradesh. The issues involved in these cases were numerous, such as the scope of the fundamental right of freedom of speech, acquisition of Zamindari (land) of intermediaries, conflict between a citizen’s fundamental right to practice any profession or to carry on any business or trade (Article 19) and State monopoly of any trade, and so on.

The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952

The Second Amendment, amended Article 81 in order to remove the prescribed limit of 7,50,000 of the population for one member to be elected to the Lok Sabha. According to the original provision, at least one member was to be elected to the Lok Sabha for every 7,50,000 of the population. It was further provided that the maximum number of elected member to the Lok
Sabha should not exceed 500.

The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954

The Third Amendment brought about changes in the Seventh Schedule consisting of the three Legislative Lists and entry 33 of the Concurrent List was substituted by a new one.

The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act,1955

Article 31 and 31A were amended by the Constitution Fourth Amendment Act. Clause (2) of Article 31 clause (1) of Article 31A was substituted by new clauses. As a result of these, the adequacy of the quantum of compensation paid for the compulsory acquisition of property for ‘a public purpose’ could not be questioned in a court of law. It also amended Article 305 and
the Ninth Schedule.

The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955

The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act amended Article 3. In the Constitution, there was no time limit during which a State Legislature should express its boundaries, which the Centre may like to make. With the help of this amendment, it was provided that the State will be required to express its views on such matters within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period, as the resident may allow.

The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956

In this Act, the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution was amended and in the Union List, a new entry was added after Entry 92 in the State List, a new Entry was substituted for Entry 54. It also amended Articles 269 and 286 dealing with inter-state Sales-tax.

The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956

The Seventh Amendment brought about the most comprehensive changes so far in the Constitution. This amendment was designed to implement the State Reorganisation Act. The Second and Seventh schedules were substantially amended for the purpose of the States Reorganization Act.

The Constitution (Eight Amendment) Act, 1959

The Act extended the period of reservation seats in Lok Sabha and State Legislatures for the Anglo-Indians, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by another 10 years.

The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960

It provided for the transfer of certain territories of India to Pakistan under an agreement between India and Pakistan as a part of a comprehensive settlement of border disputes between the two countries.

The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961

The Tenth Amendment integrates the areas of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Union of India and provides for their administration under the regulation-making powers of the President.

The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act,1961

It amended Article 71 so as to make it clear that the election of the President or the Vice- President shall not be challenged on the ground of any vacancy for whatever reason in the appropriate electoral college. It also obviates the necessity of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament (Article 66) by constituting them into an electoral college for the election of the Vice- President.

The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act,1962

The main object of the Amendment was to add Union Territories of Goa, Daman, and Diu to the Union of India and for this First Schedule of the Constitution was amended. The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962 The Act provides the creation of Nagaland as the Sixteenth State of the Union. The Amendment provides also for the vesting of certain special responsibilities in the Governor of Nagaland.

The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962

The amendment provides for the incorporation of the former French Establishments in India, under the name Pondicherry, as an integral part of the territory of the Indian Union. It also amended Article 31 to increase, from a maximum of 20 to 25, the number of seats assigned in the Lok Sabha for the Union Territories.

The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963

The amendment raised the retirement age of High Court Judges from 60 to 62 years. It also empowered the various High Courts to hear cases against the Union Government.

The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963

The Act seeks to enable Parliament to make laws provident penalty for any person questioning the sovereignty and integrity of India. Under the provisions of the this Amendment, a person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in Parliament or in the  Legislature of State unless, inter-alia, the makers or subscribes before a person authorized by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation that he will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution and will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India.

The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964

The Act amended the definition of the term ‘estate’ in Article 31A to include lands held under 'Ryotwari settlement' and also other lands in respect of which provisions are normally made in land reform enactments. It also amended the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to include therein 44 State enactments related to land reforms in order to remove any uncertainty or doubt that may arise with regard to their validity.

The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966

The amendment provides for the creation of new States, namely, Punjab and Haryana as a result of the reorganization of the former State of Punjab and the Union Territory of Himachal
Pradesh.

The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966

The Act modified Article 324 so as to terminate the jurisdiction of Election Tribunals to decide election disputes. The Amendment withdrew from the Election Commission the power of setting up Election Tribunals.

The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act,1966

The Act inserted a new Article 233A immediately after Article 233 in order to validate the appointment of District Judges, which might not have conformed fully to the different Constitutional requirements, which were inexistent prior to 1966.

The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967

It amended the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution by including ‘Sindhi’ therein.

The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969

The amendment conferred legislative power on Parliament for the purpose of creating an autonomous Hill State within the State of Assam. Accordingly, Parliament passed the Assam
Reorganization (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 to set up the State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam.

The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969

It deals with the questions of reservation of seat in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Anglo- Indian and further extend the period of
reservation by another ten years, which means in effect thirty years from the commencement of the Constitution.

The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971

It amended Article 13 and 368 with a view to removing all possible doubts regarding the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure thereof. It gets over the Golak
Nath ruling and asserts the power of Parliament, denied to in the Golak Nath, to amend Fundamental Rights.

The Constitution (Twenty-fifth) Amendment Act, 1971

The 25th amendment of the Constitution in 1971 added a new clause, Article 31C to the Constitution. Up to 1971, the position was that Fundamental Rights prevailed over the Directive
Principles of State Policy and that a law enacted to implement a Directive Principle could not be valid if it conflicted with a Fundamental Right. Article 31C sought to change this relationship to some extent by conferring primacy on Articles 39(b) and 39(c) over Articles 14, 19 and 31.

The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971

It abolished Articles 291 and 362 of the Constitution and also inserted a new Article 362A after Article 363. the cumulative effect of these changes was the end of the recognition granted to the former rulers of Indian States and the abolition of Privy Purses.

The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971

The Act was enacted to implement the decision to establish the Union Territory of Mizoram. It empowered Parliament to create a legislature and Council of Minister for the new territory.

The Constitution (Twenty-eight Amendment) Act, 1972

The amendment deleted Article 314 of the Constitution, which had given protection to the I.C.S. Officers, condition of service and privileges and inserted a new Article 312A.

The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972

By the twenty-ninth Amendment Act, 1972 two Kerala Acts dealing with land reforms were included in the 9th Schedule to the Constitution.

The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972

By this amendment, Article 133 was recast so as to redefine the Civil Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The result of this Amendment is that while any case involving an important question of law can reach the Supreme Court by way of appeal, a case however large the amount involved therein but involving no substantial point of law would fail to reach the
Supreme Court.

The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973

By this amendment, the strength of the Lok Sabha was increased from 525 to 545 members. This was done to accommodate the increase in population as revealed by the 1971 Census.
Accordingly, Article 81(i)(a) was suitably amended.

The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973

The amendment act was enacted to make few special provisions for the State of Andhra Pradesh to satisfy the aspirations of the people of the Telangana region.

The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974

It amended Articles 101 and 190. Before this Amendment, the resignation of a member of legislature became effective the moment it was tendered. This position is now changed. A resignation becomes effective only after it has been accepted by the Presiding Officer of the House concerned who may refuse to accept the same if he is satisfied that the resignation is not voluntary or genuine. This precautionary provision appeared to be necessary to avoid the members of Parliament or state legislatures being forced to resign.

The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974

By this amendment, twenty State Acts concerning land ceiling and land tenure reforms were added to the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution.

The Constitution (Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Amendment) Acts, 1974-1975

The 35th Amendment Act introduced an innovation in the Indian Constitution by conferring on Sikkim the status of an associate in the Indian Union. This was, however, a short-lived experiment. The people of Sikkim desired to be an integral part of India. Accordingly, the Constitution Thirty-sixth Amendment Act was enacted in 1975 to confer full-fledged statehood
on Sikkim.

The Constitution (Thirty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1975

The Amendment upgraded the status of Arunachal Pradesh as a Union Territory. Articles 239A and 240 were amended so as to authorize Parliament to create for Arunachal Pradesh a
Legislature and Council of Ministers.

The Constitution (Thirty-eight Amendment) Act, 1975

This Amendment Act was enacted during the emergency to make certain modifications in the emergency provisions. The Presidential ‘satisfaction’ to issue a proclamation was declared to be final and conclusive. A classificatory clause was added to Article 356(1) so as to make Presidential ‘satisfaction’ to issue a proclamation there under as ‘final and conclusive’ which shall not be questioned in any court on any ground. This Amendment also declared that the ‘satisfaction’ of the President and a State Governor to issue ordinances would be ‘final and conclusive’ and shall not be questioned in any court on any ground’.

The Constitution (Thirty-ninth) Amendment) Act, 1975

The voiding of the election to the Lok Sabha of PM Indira Gandhi by the Allahabad High Court in 1975 on the petition of Raj Narain led to the enactment of the 39th Amendment Act, 1975. It introduced changes in the method deciding election disputes relating to the four high officials of the state, viz. President, Vice- President, Prime Minister and the Speaker. Under the new Article 71(2), Parliament by the law was to establish some ‘authority’ or ‘body’ for deciding such disputes, and its decisions shall not be in question any court.

The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976

The Amendment Act extended immunity to 64 Central and State statues by including them in the IX Schedule. These statues pertained to lad reform, Urban Ceiling and prevention of
publication of objectionable matter.

The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976

The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment Act), 1976 raised the age of retirement of the chairman and members of State Public Service Commissions from 60 to 62.

The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976

The 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act brought a number of changes in the Constitution. The Act inter-alia gave preponderance to the Directive Principles of State Policy over the Fundamental Rights. Established the supremacy of Parliament and curtailed the powers of the Judiciary. The Act was first of its kind. Is was the most comprehensive Act and touched almost all the sensitive areas of the Constitution. The Amendment was meant to enhance enormously the strength of the Government. The major Amendments made in the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act are Preamble The characterization of India as the ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ has been changed to ‘Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic’. The words ‘Unity of the nation’ has been changed to ‘Unity and integrity of the nation’.

Parliament and State Legislatures: The life of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies was extended from 5 to 6 years. Executive: It amended Article 74 to State explicitly that the President shall act in accordance with the advice of the Council of Ministers in the discharge of his functions.

Judiciary: The 42nd Amendment Act inserted Article 32A in order to deny the Supreme Court the power to consider the Constitutional validity of State law. Another new provision, Article 131A, gave the Supreme Court an exclusive jurisdiction to determine questions relating to the Constitutional validity of central laws. Article 144A and Article 128A, the creatures
of the Constitutional Amendment Act made further innovation in the area of judicial review of the Constitutionality of legislation. Under Article 144A, the minimum number of judges of the Supreme Court to decide a question of Constitutional validity of a Central or State law was fixed as at least seven and further, this required two-thirds majority of the judges sitting declare the law as unconstitutional. While the power of the High Court to enforce Fundamental Rightsremained untouched, several restrictions were imposed on its power to issue writs ‘for any other purpose’.

Federalism: The Act added Article 257A in the Constitution to enable the Centre to deploy any armed force of the Union or any other force under its control. For dealing with any grave situation of law and order in any State.

Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles: A major change that was made by42nd Constitutional Amendment was to give primacy to all Directive Principles over the Fundamental Rights contained in Articles 14, 19 or 31. the 42nd Constitutional Amendment added a few more Directive Principles - free legal aid, the participation of workers in the management of industries, protection for environment and protection of forests and wildlife of the country.

Fundamental Duties: The 42nd Amendment Act inserted Article 51-A to create a new part called IV-A in the Constitution, which prescribed the Fundamental Duties to the citizens. 

Emergency: Prior to the 42nd Amendment Act, the President could declare an emergency under Article 352 throughout the country and not in a part of the country alone. The Act authorized the President to proclaim emergency in any part of the country.

The dominant thrust of the Amendment was to reduce the role of courts, particularly, that of the High Courts. It also sought to strengthen Parliament in various ways which in effect, added to the power of the Central Government, It drew enormous criticism particularly for it was pushed through during Emergency.

The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977

In 1977, the Emergency came to an end and the Janata Party came into power. It made an election pledge that it would repeal the 42nd Amendment and restore the status quo ante. The 43rd Amendment repealed some of the provisions of the 42nd Amendment. Article 31D has also been omitted.

The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978

The 44th Amendment passed in 1978 undid most of the distortions introduced into the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution. The salient features of the Amendment Act are as follows :

  • It reduced the life of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies again to five years and thus restored the status quo ante.
  • It canceled the 39th Amendment which had deprived the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction to decide disputes concerning the election of the President and the Vice-President.
  • A new provision was added to Article 74(1) saying that the President could require the council of ministers to reconsider its advice to him, either generally or otherwise and the President should Act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration. Article 257A was Omitted
  • It has been provided that an Emergency can be proclaimed only on the basis of written advice tendered to the President by the Cabinet.
  • Right to Property has been taken out from the list of Fundamental Rights and has been declared a legal right.

The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980

The purpose of the Amendment was to continue reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and the  state Assemblies for another 10 years, i.e., up to
1990. The same concession is extended to the Anglo-Indians who may have representation by nomination in these chambers.

The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982

The Forty-sixth Amendment enables the State Governments to plug loopholes and realize sales tax dues on the one hand and on the other aims at bringing about some uniformity in tax rates in case of certain items.

The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984

This Amendment adds 14 State Acts dealing with land to the IXth Schedule.

The Constitution (Forty-eight Amendment) Act, 1984

The purpose of the Amendment was to extend the President’s rule in Punjab for two years. Under Article 356(5) President’s rule can last in a State for a maximum period of one year. But the conditions in Punjab did not permit holding of fresh elections and accordingly, an extension of President’s rule became imperative.

The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984

The purpose of this Amendment is to take out the Tribal areas of Tripura from Schedule V and put them in Schedule VI.

The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984

This Amendment substitutes an expounded Article 33 for the old Article by the new Article 33, where Parliament is authorized to curtail the Fundamental Rights of the members of the armed forces, forces charged with the maintenance of public order, intelligence organizations or telecommunication systems set up for any force or Intelligence Bureau, with a view to ensure the proper discharge of duties by and maintenance of discipline among those persons in the interest of country’s security.

The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984

The Amendment effectuates some changes in Articles 330 and 332 with a view to providing for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for Scheduled Tribes in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram, as well as in the Legislative Assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya.

The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985

The amendment is designed to prevent the scourge of defection of Members of Parliament and State Legislatures from one political party to another.

The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986

The amendment Act elevated the Union Territory of Mizoram to the status of a State.

The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act,1986

The Salaries of the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts have been enhanced by the 54th Amendment Act, 1986. Accordingly, a Judge of the Supreme Court gets a salary of
Rs. 9,000 per mensem and the salary of the Chief Justice is Rs. 10,000 per mensem. A Judge of the High Court gets a salary of Rs. 8,000 per mensem and the salary of the Chief Justice of the High Courts is Rs. 9,000 per mensem.

The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986

The Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of a State by the 55th Amendment Act.

The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987

Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987 inserted Article 394A, to make the Hindi text of the Constitution authoritative.

The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987

The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987 with the Goa, Daman, and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987 lifted Goa from the status of Union Territory to that of the 25th State of the Union of India.

The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987

The Amendment Act provides the reservation of seats for tribals in the Legislative Assemblies of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.

The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988

The Act empowered the Government to impose Emergency in Punjab on the grounds that India’s integrity was threatened by internal disturbances.

The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988

The Amendment Act authorizes State Governments to increase the ceiling on professional tax from Rs. 250 to Rs. 2,500 per person per annum.

The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988

The 61st Amendment reduces the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and Assembly election.

The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1990

The 62nd Amendment Act extends by 10 years the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies as well as nomination
representatives of the Anglo-Indian community.

The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1990

The Amendment Act repealed the 59th Constitutional Amendment which empowered the Government to impose Emergency in Punjab.

The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990

The Amendment Act was to extend the President’s rule in Punjab for a further six months.

The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990

Article 338 of the Constitution has been amended for the Constitution of a National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes consisting of a chairperson, vice-chairperson and five other members who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.

The Constitution (Sixty-Eight Amendment) Act, 1990

The Act protects fifty-five State Acts relating to land reforms and ceiling on agricultural land holdings, enacted by States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, West
Bengal and Union Territory of Pondicherry, from a challenge in courts, by including them in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution.

The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1991

The Amendment Act was to extend the President’s rule in Punjab for further six months i.e., up to May 10, 1991.

The Constitution (Sixty-eight Amendment) Act, 1991

The Amendment Act was to extend President’s Rule in Punjab for further six months after May 1991.

The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991

The Amendment Act was to grant Statehood to Delhi as the ‘National Capital Territory of Delhi’. It also provides a 70 member assembly and a 7 member Council of Ministers for Delhi.

The Constitution (Seventy Amendment) Act,1992

It facilitates members of Delhi and Pondicherry Assemblies to participate in the election of the President.

The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992

The amendment facilitates the inclusion of Nepali, Manipuri, and Konkani in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. With the inclusion of these three languages, the number of
languages in the Eighth Schedule goes up to 18.

The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992

For restoring peace and harmony in the areas of the State of Tripura where disturbed conditions prevailed, Memorandum of Settlement was signed by the Government of India with Tripura National Volunteers on August 12, 1988. In order to implement the said Memorandum, Article 332 of the Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992 for making a temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State Assembly of Tripura, until the readjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first census after the year 2000 under Article 170 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992

The Seventy-third Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 was passed by the Parliament on December 22nd, 1992 which was notified by the Central Government through Official Gazette on
April 20, 1993, as it got rectification by the State legislatures and was assented to by the President of India. After notification, the Panchayati Raj Institutions have now got Constitutional
legitimacy.

After part VIII of the Constitution, a separate part IX has been added to the Constitution with the addition in Article 243A and fresh Schedule called Eleventh Schedule enumerating the powers and functions of Panchayati Raj Institutions. The Act provides for Gram Sabha, a three-tier model of Panchayati Raj, reservation of seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their
population and one-third reservation of seats for women.

The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992

The Act provides constitutional status to Urban Local Bodies. After part VIII of the Constitution, a separate part IXA has been added to the Constitution with the addition in Article 243A and a fresh schedule called Twelfth schedule enumerating the powers and functions of urban local bodies has been incorporated. The Act provides Municipal Panchayat, Municipal Council and Municipal Corporation, reservation of seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population and one-third reservation of seats for women.

The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1993

It has amended Article 323-B and added a new clause (h) providing for the establishment of tribunals for rent control cases.

The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994

This Amendment Act raises the reservation quota of government jobs and seats for admission in the educational institutions in favor of socially and educationally backward classes to
69 percent in Tamil Nadu. Further, the Amendment Act has been included in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to exempt it from the purview of judicial scrutiny.

The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995

This Amendment has added a new clause (4-a) to Article 16 of the Constitution which empowers the State to make any provisions for reservation in promotions in Government jobs in favor of SCs and STs if it is of opinion that they are inadequately represented in the services under the State. This has been done to nullify the effect of the Supreme Court Judgment in the Mandal Commission Case (Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India) in which the Court has held that reservation in promotions cannot be made.

The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) act 1995

This amended the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution and inserted 27 Land Reform Act of Various States in the Ninth Schedule. After this, the total number of acts included in the Ninth Schedule has gone up to 284. Now, these Acts cannot be challenged in the courts on the plea for the violation of Fundamental Rights.

The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 1999

By this Act, the Government has extended the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as for the Anglo-Indians in the House of the People and in
the Legislative Assemblies of the States for another ten years.

The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000

Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission, an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the State has been enacted by the Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000. Under the new scheme of devolution of revenue between Union and the States, 26 percent out of gross proceeds of Union taxes and duties is to be assigned to the States in lieu of their existing share in the income-tax, excise duties special excise duties and grants in lieu of tax on railway passenger fares.

The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000

By this amendment the unfilled vacancies of a year which reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision of
reservations made under Article 16 of the Constitution shall be considered as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years, and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they were filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty percent reservation against total number of vacancies of that year.

The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000

The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favor of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for
relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State.

The Constitution (Eighth-third Amendment) Act, 2000

The Act amended Article 243M of the Constitution to provide that no reservation in Panchayats need be made in favor of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh wholly inhabited by tribal population.

The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001

The Act amended provisions to Article 82 and 170(3) of the Constitution to readjust and rationalize the territorial constituencies in the States, without altering the number of seats allotted to each State in the House of People and Legislative Assemblies of the States, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Constituencies, on the basis of the population
ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different constituencies.

The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001

This Act amended Article 16 (4A) of the Constitution to provide for consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for Government servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002

With a view to making the right to free and compulsory education a fundamental right, the Act inserts a new Article, namely, Article 21A conferring on all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years the right to free and compulsory education. The Act amends in Part-III, Part –IV and Part-IV(A) of the Constitution.

The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003

The Amendment provides for readjustment of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, based on the population census for the year 2001, without affecting the number of seats allocated to States in the legislative bodies.

The Constitution (Eighty-Eighth Amendment) Act, 2003

The Act amends Article 268, 270 and VIIth Schedule of the Constitution. It adds 92C just after 92B and makes provisions for Tax on Services.

The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003

The Act adds Article 338A and provides for the creation of the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.

The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003

The Act amends Article 332 and adds section (6) regarding representation in the Bodo Territorial Areas District in the State of Assam.

The Constitution (Ninety-one Amendment) Act,2003

The Act makes provisions for limiting the size of the Council of Ministers at the Center and in the States and gives teeth to debar a defector from holding any remunerative political post for
the remaining tenure of the legislature unless reelected.

The Constitution (Ninety- two Amendment) Act, 2003

The Amendment facilitates for the inclusion of Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali in the VIIIth Schedule of the Constitution. With the inclusion of these four languages, the number of languages in the VIIIth Schedule goes up to 22.

The Constitution (Ninety-third Amendment) Act, 2005

Providing reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes, besides the Schedules Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, in private unaided educational institutions. The Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006 The Constitution provides that there shall be Minister in charge of tribal welfare who may, in addition, be in charge of the welfare of the
Scheduled Castes and backward classes or any other work in the State of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa.

The Constitution (Ninety-fifth Amendment) Act, 2010

The amendment aims to extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and States, assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years.

The Constitution (Ninety-sixth Amendment) Act, 2011

It has substituted "Odia" for "Oriya".

The Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act 2012

Added the words "or co-operative societies" after the word "or unions" in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of Article 43B i.e., Promotion of Cooperative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies. The objective of the amendment is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help the progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.

The Constitution (Ninety-eighth Amendment) Act, 2013

To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.

The Constitution (Ninety-Ninth Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2014

It provided for the establishment of National judicial commission

The Constitution (Hundredth Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2015

This amendment is the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh

The Constitution (101st Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2016

Goods and Services Tax (GST) has commenced with the enactment of the 101st Constitution Amendment Act, 2016 on 8th September 2016 and the subsequent notifications.

Articles 246A, 269A, and 279A were added in the constitution. The amendment made changes in the 7th schedule of the constitution. The entry 84 of Union List earlier comprised duties on tobacco, alcoholic liquors, opium, Indian hemp, narcotic drugs and narcotics, medical and toilet preparations. After the amendment, it will comprise Petroleum crude, high-speed diesel, motor spirit (petrol), natural gas, and aviation turbine fuel, tobacco, and tobacco products. Entry 92 (newspapers and on advertisements published therein) has been deleted, they are now under GST. Entry 92-C (Service Tax) has now been deleted from the union list. Under State list, entry 52 (entry tax for sale in-state) has also been deleted. Entry 54, Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, subject to the provisions of Entry 92-A of List I have now been replaced by Taxes on the sale of petroleum crude, high-speed diesel, motor spirit (petrol), natural gas, aviation turbine fuel and alcoholic liquor for human consumption, but not including sale in the course of inter-State trade or commerce or sell in the course of international trade or commerce of such goods. Entry 55 (advertisement taxes) have been deleted. Entry 62 (Taxes on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling) has now replaced by these taxes only to be levied by local governments ( panchayats, municipality, regional council or district council).

The Constitution (One Hundred and Second Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2018

The bill seeks to give constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes. It seeks to insert new article 338B in the constitution which provides for NCBC, its mandate, composition, functions and various officers. Inserted a new article 342-A which empowers the president to notify the list of socially and educationally backward classes of that state/union territory.

The Constitution (One Hundred and Third Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2019

It changed two fundamental rights, Article 15 and 16. It provides for the advancement of the economically weaker sections of society. A big 10% of all government jobs and college seats will now have a reservation for people outside the high-income bracket. It states that bill is drafted with a will to mandate Article 46 of the Constitution of India, a Directive Principle that urges the government to protect the educational and the economic interests of the weaker sections of society.

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