hunger-hotspots

CONTEXT

According to the Hunger Hotspots Report of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP), people living in parts of 20 countries would face acute food insecurity from February through May 2022.

HUNGER HOTSPOTS

  • According to the research paper, Hunger Hotspots Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen are on the highest alert.
  • According to the findings published in the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) Phase 5 report in 2021, a share of population in these four countries were projected to experience starvation and death.

  • IPC defines famine as an extreme deprivation of food.
    • It refers to a condition in which an area has at least 20% households facing extreme lack of food, at least 30% children suffering from acute malnutrition and two of every 10,000 people dying each day due to outright starvation or to the interaction of malnutrition and disease.
  • The FAO and WFP have warned that if arterial and resilience building assistance is not provided, then at least 13,550 people in conflict-affected northern Nigeria and in particular Borno state could face catastrophic food insecurity.
    • The number of people in this phase of food insecurity can be higher in Nigeria, as several out-of-reach locations in Borno state (Abadam, Guzamala and Marte) were not included in the analysis due to insufficient data.
  • A total of 8.7 million people by March 2022 are expected to slide into critical levels of acute food insecurity in Afghanistan.

DRIVERS OF FOOD INSECURITY 

  • According to the report A combination of factors maybe behind the acute food insecurity in these hotspots which may include:
    • Violence and conflict
    • Economic shocks including impacts of COVID-19 pandemic
    • Extreme weather events
    • Animal and plant pests and diseases
  • Conflict situation in various countries:As per the report people were forced to abandon their land, homes and jobs due to conflict situations in Myanmar, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central Sahel, Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, the northern parts of Ethiopia, Nigeria and Mozambique.
  • Extreme weather events:The research paper has showed that weather extremes like heavy rains, tropical storms, hurricanes, flooding, drought and climate variability were important drivers in some countries and regions.
    • La Niña in East Africa & Central Asia: The ongoing La Niña conditions led to an elevated risk of a two-year sequence of dry conditions, particularly in East Africa and Central Asia.
    • The impact of climate extremes on food security was also seen in Haiti, Eastern Africa, Madagascar, Mozambique and in Afghanistan’s western region of Badghism.
    • The report has raised concerns that climate change is no longer a glimpse into the future but the daily reality for communities around the world.
  • Economic challenges: The food prices have gone higher due to economic challenges induced by the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • The world food prices have been rising since May 2020, Near East, North Africa and Central and Eastern Asia are areas of greatest concern.

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