gs-mains-syllabus-upsc-cse

The UPSC CSE consists of three stages: preliminary examination, the mains examination, and a personality test (interview). The GS mains Syllabus of UPSC CSE is extremely vast and complex so it becomes very important to understand the syllabus to the core. The first step is always the most crucial in any of the undertakings in life as it determines the course of the entire voyage. The civil service examination follows a similar path. It is critical to understand the syllabus in order to succeed in the Civil Service Examinations.

 

The descriptive analysis of the syllabus's micro listing makes preparation easier because it allows aspirants to prepare topic by topic, ensuring that they do not overlook any crucial topics. Here, JV’s IAS offers you a micro-listing of topics that includes a specific topic-by-topic list of UPSC syllabus, allowing UPSC aspirants to finish their preparation with a better comprehension of the UPSC Prelims & Mains Syllabus.

 

ANCIENT HISTORY

1. Prehistoric Cultures in India

  • Periodization of Indian pre history
  • Sources of prehistory
  • Stone age
    • Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC)
    • Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC)
    • Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC)
  • Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC)
  • Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC)
  • Impact of Iron

2.  Pastoral and Farming Communities

  • Neolithic Phase
  • Chalcolithic Phase
  • Early Iron Phase
  • Geographical Distribution and Characteristics

3. Indus Valley Civilization

  • Major cities
  • Town Planning
  • Harappan Trade
  • Agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Crafts
  • Religion
  • Harappan Pottery
  • Weights and Measures
  • Script and Language
  • Images
  • Decline of Harappan Culture

4. Vedic Society

  • Original Home of Aryans
  • Features of Aryan Culture
  • Vedic Texts
  • Sources for Reconstructing 
  • Vedic Society and Culture
  • Geography of the Rig Vedic Period
  • Geography of the later Vedic Phases
  • Economic Conditions
  • Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy
  • Social Organisation and Varna System
  • Religion and Thought

5. Pre Mauryan-Period

  • Formation of states
  • The Sixteen Mahajanapadas
  • Republics
  • Rise of urban centres
  • Haryanka dynasty
  • Shishunaga dynasty
  • Nanda dynasty

6. The Mauryan Empire

  • Chandragupta and Bindusara
  • Megasthenes
  • Asoka and His Successors
  • Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites
  • Asoka’ a Dhamma
  • Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art
  • The Arthasastra

7. Post Mauryan India (BC-200-AD 300)

  • Society Evolution of Jatis
  • Sangam Texts-and Society
  • Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties
  • Foreign Dynasties
  • Commercial Contacts with the Outside World
  • Schools of Art

8. Growth of Jainism and Buddhism

  • Jainism
  • Buddhism

9. Imperial Guptas

  • Sources of Gupta Rule
  • Political history of Guptas
  • Fahien
  • Gupta Administration
  • Gupta Culture
  • Urban centres in Gupta period
  • Economic Conditions

10. Harshavardhana

  • Sources for Harsha’s Period
  • Early life of Harsha
  • Harsha’s Administration
  • Important Officials of the empire
  • Economy under Harsha
  • Society
  • Religion

11. The Southern Dynasties

  • The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225)
  • The Pallavas (AD 330–796)
  • The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190)
  • The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323)

 

MEDIEVAL INDIA

  1. Central Asian Politics and the Advance of Babur towards India
  • The Timurids
  • The Timurid-Uzbek and Uzbek-Iran Conflict and Babur
  • Babur’s Advance towards India
  1. Struggle for Empire in North- India (Afghans, Rajputs and Mughals)
  • Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur
  • The Battle of Panipat
  • Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat
  • Struggle with Rana Sanga
  • Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans
  • Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India

3. Struggle for Empire in North India

  • Humayun and the Afghans
  • Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah
  • The Gujarat Campaign
  • The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan

4. The Establishment of the North Indian Empire

  • The Surs
  • Sher Shah’s Early Life
  • Social and Political Background of Bihar and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power.
  • The Sur Empire (1540-56)
  • Contributions of Sher Shah

5. Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Akbar

  • Conflict with the Afghans - Hemu
  • Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s
  • Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles
  • Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) - Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India
  • Relations with the Rajputs - Growth of a Composite Ruling Class
  • Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West

6. State and Government under Akbar

  • Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty
  • Structure of Government, Central and Provincial - the Vikalat, Central Ministries, Provincial Government,
  • District and Local Government
  • The Working of Government - the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System.
    • The Mansabdari System and the Army

7. Akbar’s Religious Views

  • Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms
  • The Early Phase (1556-73)
  • The Second Phase (1573-80) - the Ibadat Khana
  • Debates - the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox
  • Ulama - Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants
  • Third or Final Phase - Din-i-Ilahi 
  • State Policies and religious toleration

8. The Deccan and the Mughals (upto 1657)

  • The Deccani States upto 1595
  • Mughal Advance towards the Deccan
  • Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar
  • Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27)
  • Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal
  • Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda
  • Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57)
  • Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States

9. Foreign Policy of the Mughals

  • Akbar and the Uzbeks
  • The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran
  • Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign
  • Mughal - Persian Relations - the Last Phase

10. India in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century

  • Jahangir’s Accession - his Early Difficulties
  • Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Mewar, East India and Kangra
  • Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’
  • The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan
  • Jahangir as a Ruler
  • State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century
  • Shah Jahan - Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire
  • Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System

11. Aurangzeb - Religious Policies, North India and the Rajputs

  • War of Succession
  • Religious Policy: First Phase (1658-79)
  • Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu
  • Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707)
  • Territorial Consolidation and
  • Expansion of Empire - North India
  • Popular Revolts - Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs
  • Breach with Marwar and Mewar

12. Climax and Crisis of the Mughal Empire the Marathas and the Deccan

  • Rise of the Marathas - Early Career of Shivaji 
  • Treaty of Purandar - the Agra Visit
  • Shivaji’s Swaraj – Administration and Achievements
  • Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87)
  • Marathas and the Deccan (1687-1707)
  • Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis

13. Society-Structure and Growth

  • Rural Society
  • Towns and Town Life
  • Artisans and Master-Craftsmen
  • Women
  • Servants and Slaves
  • Standard of Living
  • The Ruling Classes - Nobility, Rural Gentry
  • The Middle Strata
  • The Commercial Classes

14. Economic Life-Patterns and Prospects

  • Inland Trade
  • Overseas Trade - Role of Foreign Trading companies - Position of Indian merchant’s over-land Trade
  • The Mughal State and Commerce
  • Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century

15. Religion, Fine Arts, Science and Technology

  • Religion- Hindu Religion, Sikh Religion, Islam
  • Fine Arts - Architecture, Painting, Language and Literature, Music
  • Science and Technology

16. Northern India in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century

  • Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle
  • For Wizarat - Rajput Affairs - Marathas
  • Deccan - Accentuation of the Party Struggle
  • Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13)
  • The Sayyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48)

17. The Maratha Bid for Supremacy

  • The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion
  • The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa
  • The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab
  • First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);
  • Third Battle of Panipat

 

MODERN HISTORY

1. Scenario before 1857

  • Later Mughals
  • Regional powers in 18th Century
  • The British conquest of India
  • The wars during British conquest of India
  • British Administration before 1857

2. Revolt of 1857

  • Indian National Movement (1858-1905)
  • Early Nationalists and Swadeshi Movement
  • Government of India Act 1909
  • Home rule league movement

3. The struggle for Swaraj

  • Montague’s statement – Aug 1917
  • Emergence of Gandhi – as a mass leader
  • Khilafat & non-Cooperation Movement (NCM)
  • Swaraj party
  • Revolutionary Terrorism phase II (1920’s)
  • Simon Commission and Nehru report

4. Intimation of freedom

  • Civil Disobedience Movement
  • Round table conference
  • Poona pact
  • Government of India Act 1935
  • Tripuri session – 1939
  • August offer
  • Individual Satyagraha 1940-41

5. Towards achievement of freedom

  • Popular struggles in the princely states
  • 2nd World War and Nationalist response

6. Partition of India

  • Rise of Communalism
  • Wavell plan
  • Cabinet Mission Plan
  • Mountbatten plan

7. During the freedom struggle

  • Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement
  • Civil Rebellions during British
  • Tribal movements during British period
  • Peasant’s movement during British period
  • Working class Movement (1850-1900)
  • Growth of communalism
  • Left and communist trends in National Movement
  • Press and education during British period
  • Role of women in Freedom Struggle
  • Governor generals of India
  • Viceroys of India
  • Important persons
  • Important newspaper/journals
  • Congress sessions

 

POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA

1. Reorganisation of states

  • Constitutional provisions related to State formation
  • Factors that led to merger
  • Accession of the princely states
  • Accession of States under France and Portuguese
  • Accession of Sikkim
  • Rehabilitation of the Refugees
  • Federal crisis
  • Regional aspirations, insurgencies and areas of tension
  • Accommodation and national integration

2. Linguistic Regionalism in India

  • Constitutional position and language policy
  • Language and regionalism
  • Recent controversy due to rise of Hindi

3. Tribal Issue and Policy Consolidation

  • Issues & Present Status
  • Policy consolidation

4. Issue of Women and Evolution of Women Movement

  • Issues & challenges
  • Women movements
  • Government policy response and legislation
  • Governmental schemes

5. Problem of Caste and Social consolidation

  • Caste practices in India
  • Ambedkar Movement
  • Constitutional provisions
  • Recent government initiatives for emancipation of Scheduled Castes
  • Issues of Manual Scavenging

6. Communalism & Social Consolidation

  • Secularism
  • Causes of Communalism in India
  • Consequences of the communalism and social consolidation

7. Issue of Linguistic Minorities

  • Operational Inefficiency
  • Government initiatives

8. Overview of Economic Development since Independence

  • Planning in India

9. Agriculture

  • Industry
  • Service sector
  • Current challenges facing the Indian economy
  • Agriculture
  • Journey through Five Year Plans
  • Land Reforms
  • Post Green Revolution Agricultural Issues
  • Agrarian Movements
  • Achievements in Agriculture Since Independence
  • Recent Challenges

10. Industry

  • Industrial development since independence
  • Public sector since independence
  • Sectoral Development
  • Private Sector since Independence
  • Industrial Policy since Independence
  • Make in India

11. New Economic Policy

  • Impact of New Economic Policy

12. Post-Independence Policy of Science and Technology

  • India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology
  • Institutional Framework for Science and Technology Development
  • Science and Technology in Pre- Reform Period
  • Impact of Economic Reform on the
  • Science and Technology in India:
    • New Policy Initiatives in the S&T
    • Agenda of the Skill Training

 

WORLD HISTORY

1. Beginning of Modern Age

  • Disintegration of the Feudal System
  • Renaissance
  • Humanism
  • Art and Architecture
  • Literature
  • Science
  • Reformation etc.
  • Explorations, Discovery, Trade
  • Colonization – Rise of Nation State
  • The English Revolution

2. French Revolution

  • Causes
  • The revolution in France
  • France under Napoleon
  • Impact of revolution
  • Significance of revolution

3. Nationalism in Europe

  • Rise of the nation- state system
  • Unification of Italy
  • Unification of Germany

4. Colonialism and Imperialism

  • Colonialism
  • The age of Imperialism (1870-1914)
  • Imperialism in Asia
  • Analysis of Colonialism

5. Emergence of USA

  • Foundation of American Colonies
  • The Independence of United States of America
  • The American Revolutionary War
  • What was the impact of American Revolution?
  • Political Effects of the Revolution
  • How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?
  • US Civil War
  • Impact of Civil War on USA
  • Global Impact of US Civil War
  • Impact on India

6. World War-I

  • Major causes of the war
  • Course of the war
  • Analysis of major events of the war
  • Consequences of World War I
  • Aftermath of World War I
  • League of Nations

7. Russian Revolution

  • Major events in pre-revolution Russia
  • Causes
  • Course of revolution
  • Consequences
  • Aftermath of the war
  • Post-Lenin Russia

8. Inter-War Years (1919 To 1939)

  • The Great Depression
  • The Great Depression- an economic perspective
  • Rise of Fascism in Italy
  • Rise of Nazism in Germany
  • Soviet Union (USSR)

9. World War- II

  • Foundations of the war
  • Course of the war
  • Aftermath of war
  • Analysis of the war
  • Decolonization phase

10. Development in Middle East

  • Democratic reforms in Middle East
  • Arab nationalism
  • Israel

11. Cold War

  • Reasons
  • Development of Cold War (1945-1953)
  • To what extent was there a thaw after 1953?
  • Nuclear Arms Race and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

12. Post-Cold-War World

  • Global issues since 1991
  • Integration of Europe
  • European integration- a timeline
  • Rise of global Islamic terrorism
  • Rise of China

13. Communism, Socialism and Capitalism

  • Capitalism (concept, types and example)
  • Communism (concept, types, example)
  • Relevance of capitalism in present era

 

INDIAN CULTURE

1. Visual Art

  • Sculptures of Harappan Civilization
  • Sculptures of Mauryan Age
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Jain Sculptures
  • Buddhist Sculpture
  • Gupta Sculpture
  • Medieval School of Sculpture
  • Modern Indian Sculpture

2. Architecture in Ancient India

  • Harappan Period
  • Mauryan Architecture
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Gupta Period
  • Temples of Khajuraho
  • Temples of Odisha
  • Temples of Gwalior
  • Temples of Gujarat
  • Temples of Rajasthan
  • Temples of Bengal
  • Temples of Assam
  • Temples of Himachal Pradesh
  • Temples of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Pallava Period
  • Chola Period
  • Pandya Temples
  • Vijayanagar Period
  • NayakaTemples
  • Temples of Kerala
  • Vesara Style
  • Hoysala Style
  • Rashtrakuta Period

3. Indo-Islamic Architecture

  • Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate)
  • Provincial Style
  • Mughal Style
  • Sikh Style of Architecture
  • Rajput Architecture
  • Salient features

4. Modern Architecture

  • European Influence
  • Indo-Saracenic Architecture
  • Post-Independence Period

5. Indian Paintings

  • Tradition of Mural Paintings in India
  • Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India
  • Paintings in the Deccan
  • Rajput School of Painting
  • Pahari School of Painting
  • Miniature Painting in South India
  • Regional Paintings
  • Modern Paintings
  • Contemporary Paintings

6. Pottery Tradition in India

  • Ochre: Colored Pottery (OCP)
  • Black and Red Ware (BRW)
  • Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
  • Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
  • Glazed and Unglazed Pottery

7. Music in India

  • Main Pillars of Indian Music
  • Forms of Indian Music
  • Musical Instruments
  • Institutions Related to Music

8. Dances in India

  • Concept of Dance in India
  • Concept of Ashta Nayika
  • Eight Classical Dance Forms in India
  • Folk Dances
  • Modern Dances

9. Martial Arts in India

  • Genesis of Martial Arts
  • Forms of Traditional Martial Arts

10. Indian Theatre

  • Classical Sanskrit Theatre
  • Regional Theatre
  • Modern Theatre
  • Renaissance of Indian Theatre

11. Indian Puppetry

  • String Puppets
  • Shadow Puppets
  • Rod Puppets
  • Glove puppets
  • Modern Puppetry
  • Tribal Puppetry

12. Indian Cinema

  • Cinema in India
  • History of Indian Cinema
  • Classification of Indian Cinema Film
  • Music of India

13. Religions in India

  • Pre-Vedic Religion
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism
  • Sikhism
  • Islam
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Judaism
  • Philosophy in India

14. Bhakti & Sufi Movements

  • Bhakti Movement
  • Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation
  • Other Saints of Bhakti Movement
  • Maharashtra Dharma
  • Sufism

15. Languages & Literature in India

  • Sanskrit Literature
  • Pali Literature
  • Prakrit Literature
  • Tamil Literature
  • Telugu Literature
  • Malayalam Literature
  • Kannada Literature
  • Odia Literature
  • Assamese Literature
  • Bengali Literature
  • Gujarati Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Punjabi Literature
  • Marathi Literature
  • Hindi Literature
  • Persian Literature
  • Urdu Literature

16. Miscellaneous Topics

  • Indian Handicrafts
  • Indian Universities
  • Personalities Related to Culture
  • Places of Cultural Interest
  • Fairs and Festivals in India
  • Cultural Institutions in India
  • Awards and Honors Associated with Culture
  • The Calendar
  • The Eras
  • Science and Technology in Ancient India
  • UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India
  • Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage

17. Recent developments

  • Schemes for Cleanliness of Tourist Places
    • Swachh Bharat - Swachh Smarak
    • Swachh Bharat - Swachh Pakwan (Hunar Zaika)
    • Swachh Bharat - Swachh Paryatan
    • Swachh Smarak Swatchh Bharat’ app
  • National Tourism Policy, 2015
  • Schemes for Development of Cultural Heritage
  • Sanskriti App
    • Cultural Mapping of India
    • Cultural Heritage Youth Leadership Programme
    • Preservation of Cultural Heritage of Himalayas
    • Nearly 100 Monuments Identified for Portal on “Must-See Monuments
  • Schemes for Monument Development
  • Hriday
  • Swadesh Darshan
  • Prasad Scheme
  • Adarsh Smarak Yojana
  • Monuments of National importance
  • Cultural Scheme Monitoring System
  • Schemes for promotion of Culture
  • Culture Ministry to Grade Artists, Writers for Selection Process
    • Schemes for Serious Literature and Litterateurs
    • National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities
    • National Mission on Manuscripts
    • National Mission on Libraries
    • Gandhi Heritage Sites Mission
  • International Initiatives for Cultural Development and Recognition
  • Project Mausam
  • International Buddhist Conclave
  • World’s Heritage
  • UNESCO inscribed Yoga in the Representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
  • UNESCO Creative Cities Network
  • UNESCO Global Geopark
  • National Virtual Library of India
  • Animal Sports in India
  • Jallikattu
  • Kambala
  • Bulbul Fight
  • Bullock Cart Racing
  • GI Tag
    • Definition
    • GI vs. Trademark
    • Rights under GI
    • Famous Goods
    • Latest addition
  • Festivals in News
  • International Yoga Day
  • Rashtriya Ekta Diwas
  • Buddhist Circuit

 

GEOGRAPHY

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Geomorphology

  • The origin of the Earth
    • Early Theories
    • Modern Theories – BBT
    • Star Formation
    • Formation of Planets
    • Solar System
  • The Evolution of the Earth
    • Layered Structure (5 layers)
    • Evolution of Lithosphere
    • Evolution of Atmosphere
    • Evolution of Hydrosphere
  • Geological History of the Earth
  • Earth
    • Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians
    • Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects
    • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects
    • Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar
    • Eclipses - Solar, Lunar
  • Origin of Life
  • Geological Time Scale
  • Interior of the Earth
    • Sources of Information
      • Direct
      • Indirect -EarthQuake Waves, Volcanoes
    • Crust
    • Mantle
    • Core
  • Geology
    • Minerals
  • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
  • Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz,
  • Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine
  • Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak
  • Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity
  • Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non-Ferrous
  • Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement
  • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
  • Petrology
  • Rocks & landforms
  • Rocks & Soils
  • 3 Family of Rocks
  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic
  • Rock Cycle

 

  • Earthquakes
  • Waves: P, S, Body, Surface,
  • Shadow Zone
  • Types of Earthquakes
  • Effects
  • Frequency
  • Locating an Epicenter
  • Volcano
  • Types
    • Shield
    • Composite
    • Caldera
    • Flood Basalt
    • Mid Ocean Ridge
  • Landforms (intrusive)
  • Batholiths
  • Laccoliths
  • Lapoliths
  • Phacoliths
  • Sills
  • Dykes
  • Geomorphic Processes
  • Earth’s Surface
    • Exogenic Forces
    • Endogenic Forces
    • Gradation, Degradation & Aggradation
  • Geomorphic Process
  • Endogenic Process
    • Diastrophism
      • Orogenic
      • Epeirogenic
      • Earthquakes
      • Plate movements
    • Volcanism
    • Exogenic Forces
      • Denudation Processes
        • Weathering
        • Mass movements
        • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
  • Theories
    • Continental Drift Theory
      • Alfred Wegner 1912
      • Pangea, Panthalasa
      • Laurasia, Gondwanaland
  • Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory
  • Jigsaw Fit
  • Rocks of Same age across oceans
  • Tillite
  • Placer Deposits
  • Distribution of Fossils
  • Forces of Drifting
  • Pole Fleeing Force
  • Tidal Force

 

  • Post Drift Studies
  • Convectional Current Theory
  • Mapping of the Ocean Floor

 

  • Continents – plate Tectonics
  • Lithospheric Plates
  • Major Plate
  • Minor Plates
  • Plate Boundaries
  • Divergent
  • Convergent
  • Transform
  • Rates of Plate Movements
  • Force of plate movements
  • Indian Plate
  • Movement from 71 million years ago till Today
  • Landforms and their Evolution
  • Causes
  • Geomorphic Processes
  • Agents
  • Geomorphic Agents
    • Erosional or Destructional
    • Depositional or Constructional
  • Agents and their Impacts
    • Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents
  • Winds
    • One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts
    • Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact
    • Erosional landforms
      • Pediments and Pedi plains
      • Playas
      • Deflation Hollows and Caves
      • Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks
  • Depositional Landforms
    • Barchans
    • Seif
    • Parabolic
    • Transverse
    • Longitudinal
  • Running Water
    • Humid Regions
    • Two Components
      • Overland Flow – Sheet
      • Linear Flow – Streams
    • Stages
      • Youth Mature Old
    • Erosional Landforms
    • Valleys
      • Rills
      • Gullies
      • Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary)
    • Potholes & Plunge pools
    • Incised or entrenched meanders
    • River Terraces – paired & unpaired
  • Depositional Landforms
    • Alluvial Fans
    • Delta
    • Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars
    • Meanders, Slip off bank,
    • Undercut bank
    • Oxbow lake
    • Braided Channels
  • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
    • Permeable Rocks
      • Percolation
      • Bedding Plains
    • Limestone and Dolomite Regions
      • Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Pools-Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements
        • Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels
  • Depositional landforms
    • Stalactites 
    • Stalagmites
    • Pillar Columns
  • Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Cirque of Tarn Lakes
      • Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete
      • Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords
    • Depositional Landforms
      • Glacial Tills
      • Moraines
      • Eskers
      • Outwash Plains
      • Drumlins
    • Waves and Currents
      • High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Cliffs
        • Terraces
        • Caves
        • Stacks
      • Depositional Landforms
        • Beaches and Dunes
        • Bars Barriers Spits
      • Weathering
        • Weather over Earth Materials
        • Factors
          • Geological
          • Climatic
          • Topographic
          • Vegetative
    • Major Processes
      • Chemical
      • Physical or Mechanical
      • Biological
    • Chemical – Forces Chemical Action
      • Solution
      • Carbonation
      • Hydration
      • Oxidation & Reduction
    • Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure
      • Unloading & Expansion
      • Temperature changes and Expansion
      • Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging
      • Salt Weathering
    • Biological Weathering
      • Burrowing
      • Wedging
      • Plant Roots
      • Effects of Weathering
      • Exfoliation (Flaking)– Exfoliation
      • Domes, Tors
    • Significance of Weathering
      • Soil Formation
      • Biomes and Biodiversity
      • Leaching / Enrichment
  • Mass Movements
    • Activating causes
    • Forms of movement – Heave
    • Flow Slide
    • 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides
  • Landforms across the world:
    • Rivers and lakes
    • Mountain and Peaks
    • Plateaus

 

2. Climatology

Composition

  • Gases
  • Water Vapour
  • Dust Particles
  • Structure

Exosphere

  • Thermosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Troposphere
  • Altitude vs Temperature

Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature

  • Insolation
  • Aphelion and Perihelion
  • Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth
  • Day Season Year
  • Rotation on Axis, Angle of
  • Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day
  • Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.

Heat Balance

  • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Advection
  • Terrestrial Radiation
  • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
  • Macro Budget
  • Albedo
  • Shortwave Radiation
  • Long wave Earth Radiation
  • Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface

Temperature

  • Factors controlling T distribution
  • Distribution of T Month of January-July
  • Range of T Month of January-July
  • Inversion of Temperature

Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems

  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Vertical variation of pressure
  • Horizontal distribution of pressure
  • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
  • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the WIND
    • Pressure Gradient Force
    • Frictional Force
    • Coriolis Force
    • Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation)

General Circulation of the Atmosphere Pattern of Planetary Winds

  • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
  • Emergence of Pressure Belts
  • Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun
  • Distribution of continents & Oceans
  • Rotation of the Earth

Circulation

  • Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell
  • Seasonal Wind
  • Local Wind
  • Land and Sea Breezes
  • Mountain and Valley winds
  • AIR MASS – fronts
  • ExtraTropical Cyclone
  • Thunderstorms
  • Tornadoes

Water in the Atmosphere

  • Water Vapour
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
  • Saturation – Dew Point
  • Evaporation and Condensation
  • Dew
  • Frost
  • Fog & Mist
  • Clouds
  • Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus
  • High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus
  • Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus
  • Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus
  • Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
  • Precipitation
  • Rainfall Snowfall Sleet Hail Hailstones
  • Types of Rainfall
  • Conventional
  • Orographic
  • Cyclonic
  • World Distribution of Rainfall
  • World Climate
  • The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
  • The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical
  • Marine Climates
  • The Savanna or Sudan Climate
  • The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates
  • The Warm Temperate Western  Margin (Mediterranean) Climate
  • The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate
  • The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate
  • The Arctic or Polar Climate

 

  1. Oceanography
  • Water on the Surface of the Earth
    • Hydrological Cycle
      • Component
      • Processes
  • Oceans
    • Relief of the Ocean floor
    • 4 divisions of the ocean floor
      • Continental Shelf
      • Continental Slope
      • Deep sea plain
      • Oceanic deep and Trenches
    • Minor relief features
      • Mid oceanic ridges
      • Seamount
      • Submarine canyons
      • Guy outs
      • Atoll
    • Temperature of the Ocean Water
      • Vertical
      • Spatial
      • Factors affecting Temperature Distribution
        • Latitude
        • Unequal distribution of land & Water 
        • Prevailing wind
  • Ocean Currents
  • Horizontal & Vertical Distribution
    • Thermocline
    • 3 layers
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
  • Factors affecting salinity
  • Evaporation and precipitation
  • Fresh water flow from rivers
  • Wing
  • Ocean currents
    • Horizontals distribution of salinity
    • Vertical Distribution of salinity
  • Density of Ocean Waters

Movements of ocean Water

  • Factors influencing Movement
  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Density
  • Sun Moon winds

Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents

Waves

  • Motion of waves and water molecules
  • Characteristics Of WAVE
    • Crest and Trough
    • Height
    • Amplitude
    • Period
    • Length
    • Speed
    • Frequency
    • Tides

Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides

  • Tidal currents
  • Types of Tides
  • Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed
  • Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides
  • Importance of Tides
  • Ocean Currents
  • Influenced by 2 forces
  • Primary Force that initiates the movement
  • Heating of solar energy
  • Wind
  • Gravity
  • Coriolis force
  • Secondary force that influence the currents to flow
  • Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots
  • Types of ocean currents
    • Surface currents & Deep-water currents based on Depth
    • Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature
  • Major Ocean currents of the World
  • Effects of Ocean Currents

 

  1. Water Resource
  • Underground water resource
  • Surface water resources
  • Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources by ma
  • Oceanic water resources: Main features of ocean
  • Utilization of oceans by man
  • Water consumption patterns
  • Water pollution
  • Conservation of water resources
  • Techniques of water conservation

 

  1.  Biogeography
  • Soil
    • Soil Characteristics
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Stages of Soil Formation
    • Soil Forming Processes
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Soil Classification
    • Soil Erosion and Conservation
  • Vegetation resources
    • Types of natural vegetation
    • Forests
    • Significance of forests
      • Economic significance, Ecological significance
      • Cultural significance
  • Factors of forest development
  • Extent of forest cover
  • Classification of forests
    • Grasslands
    • Desert vegetation
    • Tundra Vegetation
  • Economic utilization of forests
  • Deforestation
    • Deforestation in tropical forests
    • Deforestation in temperate forests
    • Rate and extent of deforestation
    • Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation
    • Indirect deforestation
    • Underlying causes of deforestation
  • Conservation of forests
    • Forest conservation strategies
    • Reforestation
    • Monoculture plantation
    • Afforestation
  • Types of forestry
    • Social forestry
    • Agroforestry

 

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Demography
  • Concept of Human Resources
  • Population Distribution
  • Factors of population distribution
    • Physical Factors
    • Socio Cultural Factors
    • Demographic Factors
  • World Population Distribution
    • Ecumene
    • Non-ecumene
  • Continent wise distribution of Population
  • Density of population
  • Pattern of Population density
  • Population Increase (Growth) in the World
  • Causes of Rapid Increase in Population
  • Present Trend
  • Future Projection
  • Determinants of Population Growth
  • Natural Increase
  • Characteristic of Population
    • Age Composition
    • Population Pyramids
    • Sex Composition
    • Literacy
  • Theories of population growth
    • Malthusian theory
    • Marxian theory
    • Demographic transition theory
  • Optimum population
    • Over-population
    • Under-population
  • Population problems
    • Population problems of developing countries
    • Population problems of developed countries
    • Population dilemma of Europe
  • Population Policies: of China, of India
  • Various types of rural settlements
  • Relationship between house types with relief, climate and building materials

 

2. Urbanization

  • Basic Feature and Pattern of India’s Urbanization
  • Issues of Urbanization in India
    • Rural Urban Migration
    • Emergence of Slums
    • Urban Transport
    • Waste Disposal
    • Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation
    • Electronic Waste
    • Urban Poverty
    • Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Bill, 2013
  • Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization
    • Inclusive Cities/Smart cities
    • Recent government programmes:
      • Migration
      • Displacement
      • Importance of the Rehabilitation Policy
      • Urban settlements: types
      • Urbanization process in India.
      • Morphology of urban settlements
      • Town planning and patterns of rural settlement
      • Settlement types of the world
      • Migration: Push factors and pull factors
      • Emigration during colonial, post-independent and post-liberalisation period
      • Internal versus world migration
      • Functional classification of cities
      • Difference between boundaries and frontiers, their classification
      • Rural urban fringe characteristics, advantages, problems
      • National urbanization policy
      • Principles of urban planning
      • Land cover transformation
      • Factors affecting rural settlements, their types and patterns
      • Cities – hierarchical classification, morphological classification

3. Census

  • Literacy
  • Sex ratio
  • Family Planning
  • Old Age
  • Age Structure
  • Density
  • Population growth
  • Census terminology

 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

1. Agriculture

Land resource

  • Land-use
  • Land capability classification
  • Causes of Land Degradation
  • Impact of Land Degradation
  • Steps taken by GOI
  • Sustainable Land Management

Basic terms related to Agriculture

  • Performance of the agriculture sector
  • Types of farming in India
  • Dry zone farming
  • Organic farming
  • Cropping seasons in India
  • Cropping Pattern in India
  • Agriculture regionalization
  • Infrastructure factors: Seeds;
  • Fertilizers; Irrigation
  • Land use pattern in India
  • Institutional Factors as land reform
  • Horticulture sector in India
  • Agricultural revolutions
  • Agricultural labourers
  • Price Policy for Agriculture
  • Agricultural marketing
  • Agricultural Insurance
  • Agricultural Census
  • Major schemes in agricultural sector
  • National Policy for farmers
  • Impact of climate change on agriculture
  • What is sustainable agriculture?
  • Use of IT in agriculture
  • Agriculture Issues and Challenges

Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth

Wheat

  • Conditions of growth
  • Varieties
  • Types of cultivation
  • Production patternInternational trade
  • Rice
  • Conditions of growth
  • Varieties
  • Methods of cultivation
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Maize (Corn)

  • Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Barley

  • Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Oats

  • Rye
  • Beverages

Tea

  • Condition of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Coffee

  • Types of coffee
  • Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Cocoa

  • Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Tobacco

  • Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • International trade

Fibre Crops

  • Cotton
    • Varieties of cotton
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Jute
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
    • Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp
    • Abaca, Henequen
    • Sisal
  • Raw Silk
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Natural Rubber
    • Other sources of rubber
    • Plantations in South-east Asia
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Sugarcane
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
    • Sugar Beet - Conditions of growth
  • Production pattern
  • Sugar industry
  • Sugar consumption
  • International trade

 

2. Mineral resource

  • Types of minerals: Metallic minerals
  • Non-metallic mineral
  • Distribution of minerals and mining regions
  • Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore
  • Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous
  • Manganese
  • Chromium
  • Nickel
  • Tungsten
  • Antimony
  • Copper
  • Bauxite and Aluminium
  • Zinc; Lead
  • Tin
  • Precious metals: Gold
  • Silver
  • Platinum
  • Mineral chemicals
    • Mica
    • Potash
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrates
    • Sulphur
  • Conservation of mineral resources

 

  1. Energy resources
  • Classification of energy
  • Production of conventional energy
  • General trends of energy production and consumption
  • Reserves and sources of energy
  • Coal
    • Nature and origin of coal
    • Constituents and kinds of coal
    • Coal fields and coal production
    • By products of coal
    • Conservation of Coal Petroleum
  • Petroleum
    • Nature and properties of petroleum
    • Origin and recovery
    • Exploration
    • Petroleum refining
    • Petroleum reserves
    • Producing areas
    • Consumption of petroleum
    • International trade
    • OPEC and its role in oil trade
  • Natural gas: Reserves and Production
  • Hydro-electricity
    • Advantages of hydro-electricity
    • Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity
    • Distribution of potential hydro-power
    • Hydro-electric power generation
  • Atomic (nuclear) energy
    • Atomic: source minerals: Uranium
    • World distribution of uranium
    • Production of uranium
    • Thorium
    • Production of atomic (nuclear) energy
    • Nuclear energy: the energy of future
  • Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Geothermal power
    • Tidal energy
    • Wave energy
    • Biomass energy
  • Alternate Energy Sources
    • Hydrogen as a Fuel for Future or Hydrogen as an Alternative Energy Source
    • Microbial Fuel Cell
    • Energy Context with Respect to Indian Scenario
    • Energy Plantation
  • Energy crisis

 

4. Industry

  • Industrial development
  • Iron and Steel Industry
    • Process of iron and steel production
    • Location of iron and steel industry
    • Early localization
    • Development of iron manufacture
    • Distribution of iron and steel industry
    • Global steel production
    • International trade
    • Growth potential of the steel industry
  • Textile Industry
    • Cotton textile industry: Location of the industry
    • Recent trends in localization
    • Distribution and production of cotton textiles
    • Woolen textile industry: Location of the industry
    • Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture
    • Silk textile manufacturing
    • Synthetic (artificial) silk industry:
    • Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics.
  • Engineering Industries
    • Machine tools and machines: Areas of production
    • Industrial machinery: Textile machinery
    • Other industrial machinery
    • Agricultural machinery
  • Manufacturing of transport equipment
    • Automobile industry
    • Railway car and locomotive industry
    • Shipbuilding
    • Recent trends
    • Aircrafts industry
  • Chemical Industry
    • Classes of chemicals: Branches of chemical industry
    • Heavy chemical industry
    • Production of acids and alkalis
    • Rise of chemical industry
    • Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers
    • Phosphate fertilizers
    • Potash fertilizers
    • Explosives
    • Glass industry: Production of glass
  • Agro-industries
    • Synthetic rubber industry
    • Pulp and paper industry: Essential
    • conditions for pulp production
    • Production of paper and paper board
    • Newsprint
    • International trade
    • Salient features of pulp and paper industry
  • Cement industry
    • Distribution of cement industry
    • Recent trends: Main global competitors
  • Petroleum refining industry: Localization
    • Site selection of petroleum refineries
    • History of oil refineries
    • World pattern of oil refining
    • Petroleum products
  • Industrial Regions
    • Characteristics of industrial regions
    • Delimitation of an industrial region
    • Principal industrial regions of the world
    • Industrial regions of Anglo America-USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR
    • Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns

 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 

  1. Recent developments in transport sector
  • Long term irrigation fund
  • Sports Sector Gets the Infrastructure Status
  • Railways India Development Fund
  • National Infrastructure Investment Fund
  • Defence Innovation Fund
  • Merger of Railway Budget with General Budget
  • Non-Fare Revenue Policies in
  • Indian Railways
  • Rail Safety Fund
  • Flexi Fare Method in Railway
  • Rail Cadre Management
  • Tri-Netra in railways
  • National Rail Plan 2030
  • Draft Policy on Suburban Tracks
  • India’s First Caterpillar Train
  • Mission 41k
  • Green corridor concept
  • Made in India ‘Medha’ train
  • Antyodaya Express
  • Station Redevelopment Project
  • Smart Railway Station
  • Yatri Mitra Seva
  • National Highways Interconnectivity
  • Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme
  • Transit Oriented Development Policy
  • Logistic Efficiency Enhancement Programme
  • Indian Bridge Management System
  • Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Affected Areas
  • North East Road Network Connectivity Project
  • TIR Convention
  • National Road Safety Policy
  • Sagarmala
  • Urja Ganga Gas Line Project
  • TARANG
  • E-trans
  • DEEP (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Price)
  • GARV II APP
  • Trading of Energy Saving Certificates
  • 24X7 Powers for All
  • Draft National Electricity Plan
  • Habitat Commitment Index
  • AirSewa Portal
  1. Recent developments in Industrial Sector
  • Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
  • Amritsar-Kolkata corridor
  • Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
  • Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor
  • Visakhapatnam-Chennai Industrial Corridor
  • East Coast Economic Corridor
  • Apex Corridor Development Authority
  • Star Rating of Mines
  • Tamra Portal
  • Mining Surveillance System
  • Coal Mitra
  • M-SIPS for Electronic Sector
  • Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act or RERA
  • Indian Enterprise Development Service
  • Trade Receivables Discounting System
  • SME Business Environment Index
  • Medipark
  • ZED Scheme
  • Startup Mentorship Circle
  • FAME

 

3. Recent developments in agriculture field

  • AADHAR Based Biometric Authentication in PDS: Pros and Cons
  • Volatility in Pulse Prices
    • Arvind Subramanian Committee on Pulse Crises
    • Government Raises Buffer Stock of Pulses
    • PUSA Arhar 16 to Bridge Demand-Supply Gap
  • Agro Irradiation Centers
  • Options Trading in Agricultural Produce
  • Agricultural Marketing and Farm Friendly Reforms Index
  • National Food Security Act
  • Digitization and Agriculture
  • Direct Benefit Transfer in Fertilized Sector
  • Aquaponic Farm
  • Gift Milk Scheme
  • Draft Regulation on Fortification of Foods
  • Law Commission Recommendation on Food Laws
  • Concept of Modern Terminal Markets
  • Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
    • e-Pashuhaat Portal
    • Schemes of Biotech Kisan and Cattle Genomics
    • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
    • Mission Fingerling
  • Terms in Brief
    • Krishi Puruskar for Small Farmers
    • Ornamental Fishing
    • Agricultural Science Congress
    • RubSiS
    • Ethanol Blending
    • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
    • Amendments to the NABARD Act, 1981
    • Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops
    • Best Horticulture Award
    • Neem Coating of Urea
  • Soil Health Card Scheme
  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana
  • ‘Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
  • PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana
  • National Agriculture Market

 

  1. Places in news
  • Majuli Island
  • Ashalim Project
  • Loktak Lake
  • Barren Island
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Gotthard Base Tunnel
  • Panama Canal
  • Akodara
  • Genetic Garden of Halophytes
  • Maharashtra
  • Morocco
  • Sankhuwasabha
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Hambantota Port
  • Tirunelveli
  • Palmyra
  • Sabarimala Circuit
  • Libya, Sudan, Somalia, Syria, Iraq,
  • Yemen and Iran
  • Tembhli
  • Mahanadi and Tributaries
  • Agartala Rail Link
  • Mekadatu Project on Kaveri
  • Yettinahole Project
  • Country’s first Water Metro Project
  • Indus basin: Shahpur Kandi Dam Project
  • Ghatampur Thermal Power Project
  • Deepest Rail Project
  • Lost Continent
  • Zealandia
  • World’s First Polluted River discovered by Scientists
  • Pre-historic camping site found in Ladakh
  • Report on Palaeo Channel of North West India
  • Cyclones in News

 

INDIAN SOCIETY FEATURES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

 

1. Salient features of Indian society.

  • Features of Indian society
  • Changes within Indian society and their repercussions
  • Causes of changes
  • Indian society today

 

2. Diversity of India.

  • What is diversity?
  • Types of diversities in India
  • Can diversity be equated with difference?
  • The unity in diversity- a reality or a chimera
  • Some examples
  • Manner of reconciliation

 

3. Role of women’s organizations.

  • Women’s organizations in Indian history
  • Types of women’s organizations
  • Level of penetration
  • Women’s organization – a ray of hope
  • Few case studies
  • Problems faced by women’s organizations
  • Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same
  • Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institutions

 

4. Poverty and development issues

  • Poverty
  • Concept of development
  • Sen vs Bhagwati model
  • Crisis of development
  • Certain case studies
  • Government’s initiatives and the five year plans
  • Role of civil society organizations

 

5. Effects of globalization on Indian Society

  • What is the meaning of globalization?
  • Kinds of impact of globalization–economic, political, developmental and socio-cultural
  • Is the impact solely positive or negative

 

6. Social empowerment

  • Meaning and concept of social empowerment
  • Why do we need social empowerment?
  • Specific sections for whom social empowerment is the life blood
  • Social empowerment through the five year plans
  • Government’s initiatives for empowerment
  • Empowerment in reality and India’s experience
  • Other approaches /players/tools for social empowerment and some case studies on the same

 

7. Communalism

  • Meaning and concept of communalism
  • Historicity of communalism
  • Recent incidents
  • Role of third parties in inciting/perpetrating communalism
  • Communalism under the law
  • Can communalism be eradicated from the Indian society completely?

 

8. Secularism

  • Meaning and concept of secularism
  • Secularism through the vantage point of Indian Constitution
  • Comparisons of models Indian & Western
  • Gandhi ji on religion
  • Indian philosophy on secularism
  • Threats on the secular spirit
  • Is the Indian democracy mature enough to handle the gravity of secularism?

9. Regionalism

  • Meaning and concept of regionalism
  • Theories on regionalism
  • Regionalism in its various manifestations
  • Role of various players
  • Recent incidents causing a wave of flurry
  • Possible ways to tackle the same

 

SOCIAL JUSTICE

1. Welfare schemes for vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States

  • Constitutional arrangement
  • Women welfare
  • Child welfare
  • SC/ST welfare
  • OBC welfare
  • Minorities welfare
  • Old age welfare
  • Legislations
  • Issues
  • Reforms needed

 

2. Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

  • Education structure in India
  • Primary, secondary and higher education
  • Initiatives taken by GOI in education
  • Issues
  • Reforms needed
  • Recommendations of committees
  • Future prospects in education sector
  • Skill development
  • Health indicators
  • Health structure in India
  • Private and Public health structure
  • Issues
  • Reforms needed
  • NITI Aayog Report
  • Economic development and human development
  • SDGs and India

 

3. Issues relating to poverty and hunger

  • Poverty definition by different committees
  • Poverty data in India
  • Causes of poverty
  • Poverty and unemployment
  • Poverty and social conflict
  • Impact of LPG on poverty
  • Linkage between poverty and development
  • Rural poverty
  • Urban poverty
  • Feminization of poverty
  • Poverty alleviation measures
  • Problems in implementation of Poverty alleviation programmes
  • Poverty and Hunger
  • Food security programmes and issues
  • Hunger and health
  • Impact of hunger and poverty on economic development of the nation
  • Controversy related to Poverty Data Estimation

 

4. The Scheduled and Tribal Areas

  • 5th Schedule Areas
  • 6th Schedule Areas
  • Composition of autonomous councils
  • Role and functions of councils
  • Role of Governor with respect to tribal areas
  • Tribal sub plan

 

WELFARE SCHEMES

1. Start-up and Skill Development

  • Start Up India Scheme
  • Stand up India Scheme
  • National Student Startup Policy
  • National Skill Development Mission
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
  • Skill Development Initiative Scheme
  • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
  • Atal Innovation Mission

 

2. Vulnerable Sector

  • Social Security
  • Atal Pension Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
  • Minorities
  • Nai Roshni Scheme
  • USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
  • Nai Manzil Scheme
  • Women and Child Development
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
  • Digital Gudda Guddi Board
  • Sabla
  • Ujjawala Scheme
  • Janani Suraksha Yojana
  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
  • SC/ST
  • Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
  • Disability
  • Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)

 

3. Health

  • National Health Mission
  • National Ayush Mission
  • Swasthya Rakshan Program
  • Jan Aushadhi Scheme
  • Mission Indradhanush
  • NFHS-4 survey

 

4. Education

  • Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme
  • Ishan Uday
  • GIAN (Global Initiative of Academic Networks)
  • Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan
  • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active - Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)

5. Rural & Urban Development

  • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
  • Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
  • Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
  • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban
  • Housing for all by 2022
  • Smart Cities Mission
  • Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
  • Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)

 

6. Miscellaneous Schemes

  • Jeevan Praman
  • Digilocker
  • Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network)
  • INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit
  • for Inspired Research)
  • SAKAAR
  • Digital India
  • Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project)
  • Ganga Gram Yojana
  • Jal Kranti Abhiyan
  • Khelo India
  • One Rank One Pension Scheme
  • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation)
  • Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)

 

7. Inclusive growth

  • Measurement criteria
  • Government initiatives for inclusive growth
  • Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/ Sanitations
  • Sustainable Development

 

8. Rural Development

  • Rural development and poverty alleviation
  • Review of the Existing Programmes
  • Development Administration
  • Panchayati Raj
  • Agriculture and Rural Development

 

9. Social Sector Bills

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act
  • ‘Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016’
  • ‘Child Labor (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016’
  • Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016
  • Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act
  • Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
  • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO)
  • Anti-Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty
  • HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill-2014 - Amendments
  • Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC Widens Ambit
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefits
  • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016
  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act

 

SOCIAL ISSUES IN NEWS

  1. Secularism, Regionalism & Communalism
  • Secularism and Anti-Conversion
  • Regionalism: Demand for smaller states
  • Repercussions of making Hindi compulsory
  • Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011

 

  1. Issues related to Women
  • Maternity benefit Amendment Bill
  • Altruistic surrogacy in India
  • Status of widows
  • Acid Attacks
  • SC banned Women Sterilization in India
  • Issue of Sex ratio
  • Issue of Triple Talaq
  • Female Foeticide and Infanticide
  • Reservation for Women in Legislature
  • Women in Combat Duties
  • Women in panchayats
  • Women participation in Economy
  • Challenges faced by Working Women
  • Draft National Policy for Women, 2016

 

  1. Issues related to Children
  • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses
  • Issue of malnutrition in India
  • Amendments proposed in Child Labour Act
  • Plight of street children
  • Adoption Regulations, 2017
  • National Child Policy
  • Out of school children: Issues and steps needed
  • Cradle Baby Scheme
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Child Marriages in India
  • Draft bill on child abduction
  • National Action Plan for Children, 2016
  • Report on the Protection of Children (Inter-Country Removal and Retention) Bill, 2016

 

  1. Social issues
  • Social stigma attached with HIV
  • Issues related to Transgender and Transgender Persons Bill, 2015
  • Euthanasia Issue: An Analysis
  • Right to Privacy and Aadhaar
  • Mental Health Care Bill
  • Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2016
  • Challenge of ageing with dignity
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
  • Maintenance of Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act
  • Manual Scavenging
  • Mob lynching and Rule of Law
  • Issue related to Undertrials
  • Issues related to Sanitation
  • Sharp reality of displacement
  • Moral policing
  • Income inequality in India
  • Forest Rights Act: Analysis

 

5. Health & Education

  • Issue of poor infrastructure in schools
  • No Detention Policy
  • New Policy on Education
  • Lancet Report on Healthcare spending
  • New Health Policy, 2017
  • Technology Adaptation in Health Care
  • Food Fortification

 

6. Government initiatives in social sector

  • Progress Panchayat initiative
  • National Sex Offender Registry
  • Slum Redevelopment
  • Issue of farmer suicide in India
  • Anthropological Survey of India
  • National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes
  • T.V.S.N. Prasad Report on Pellet Guns
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Concept of Open Prison

 

Polity & Governance

 

1. Historical Evolution & Features

  • Importance of Constitution
  • Historical evolution of the Constitution
  • Constituent Assembly
  • Objectives of the Constitution
  • Salient features of Indian Constitution
  • Unitary features
  • Federal features
  • Parliamentary form of government
  • Presidential form of government
  • Parliamentary vs. Presidential system of government

 

2. Preamble

  • Preamble
    • Basic features
    • Value premises of constitution
    • Terminologies as:
      • Democratic
      • Sovereign
      • Socialist
      • Secular
      • Republic
      • Justice
      • Equality
      • Liberty
      • Fraternity
      • Integrity

 

3. Citizenship

  • Basic constitutional features
  • Methodology of getting citizenship
  • Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India
  • Concept of dual citizenship
  • Citizenship provisions in J&K
  • Special privileges enjoyed by citizens in India

 

4. Fundamental Rights

  • Significance of Fundamental Rights
  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Difference between procedure established by law and due process of law
  • Writs and their uses
  • Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights

 

5. DPSP

  • Basic features
  • Directives
  • Economic and Social DPSP
  • Gandhian DPSP
  • Administrative DPSP
  • DPSP related to International Peace
  • Implementation of DPSP
  • Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy Controversy

 

6. Fundamental Duties

  • Features
  • Link of Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties

 

  1. Other Principles
  • Process of law making in India
  • Role of Constitutional and extra constitutional bodies in law making
  • Basic structure: How it evolves?
  • Different types of majorities required in Indian Constitution
  • DPSP Fundamental Rights
  • Doctrines Terminologies

8. Separation of Powers

  • Features in American and UK Constitution
  • Checks and balances provisions in Indian Constitution
  • Judicial Review
  • Concept of Separation of Powers

9. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

  • It should cover Comparison of USA, UK, India and neighbours

10. Union & States

  • State Reorganization Commission (brief)
  • Components of Indian territory
  • Process of formation of new states
  • Zonal Councils
  • Union territories
  • Special provisions for states

11. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States

  • Regulating functions of Government
  • Development functions of government
  • Service providing functions of government
  • Problems in implementation
  • Recommendations for improvement
  • Interrelationship between union, state and local government in implementation of roles
  • Constitutional provisions related to financial devolution
  • Issues of financial devolution
  1. The federal structure
  • Administrative relations
  • Legislative relations
  • Financial relations
  • Misuse of Article 356
  • Issues related to concurrent list
  • Issues related to appointment of Governor
  • Issues related to state formation
  • Poor devolution of finances
  • Reserving bill for Presidential approval
  • Central sponsored schemes and issues
  • Special package for different states
  • Issues between Centre and State after 1990 reforms
  • Foreign policy and Centre and State Relations

13. The President

  • Importance of President
  • Qualification
  • Election procedure
  • Advantages and disadvantages of single transferable form of voting
  • Presidents’ Term of Office and emoluments
  • Executive Powers
  • Legislative Powers
  • Emergency Powers
  • Financial Powers
  • Miscellaneous powers
  • Judicial powers
  • Presidents Impeachment
  • President as nominal head
  • Issues
    • Ordinance making power
    • Passage of bills
  • Misuse of emergency provisions
    • Pardon power
    • Coalition government

14. Vice President

  • Office of the Vice-President
  • Functions
  1. Prime Minister
  • Appointment of PM
  • Functions of PM
  • Role of PM with respect to
    • CoM
    • President
    • Lok Sabha
    • Political Party
    • Coalition Government

16. Council of Ministers

  • Division of CoM
  • Role of CoM
  • Role of Cabinet
  • Responsibilities of the Ministers

17. Attorney General of India

  • Qualification
  • Functions
  • Powers with respect to parliament

18. Parliament

  • Composition of Rajya Sabha
  • Composition of Lok Sabha
  • Composition of Legislative assembly and Legislative Council
  • Qualification and disqualification of MPs and MLAs
  • Vacation of seats
  • Sessions of parliament
  • Law making procedure
  • Officers of Parliament and state legislature
  • Parliament Proceedings
  • Motions and resolutions in Parliament
  • Powers and Privileges
  • Financial proceedings
  • Comparison of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
  • Comparison of Legislative assembly and council
  • Women reservation in Parliament and issues
  • Lowering of Parliamentary powers
  • Parliamentary committees and their working
  • Judicial activism and Parliament
  • Delegated legislation and issues

 

19. The Union Judiciary

  • Integrated judicial system
  • Supreme Court
    • Composition
    • Independence of Supreme Court
    • Jurisdiction of SC
    • Judicial Review
  • High Court
    • Composition
    • Terms and removal
    • Jurisdiction
    • Other powers
    • Lower judiciary
    • Appointment
    • Powers
  • The role of the Supreme Court of India as guardian of the Constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights
  • Judicial Review
  • PIL
  • Judicial Activism
  • Judiciary appointment
  • Collegiums System
  • NJAC Controversy
  • National Court of Appeal
  • Judicial Accountability
  • Issues of corruption in judiciary

20. Ministries and Departments of the

Government

  • Functioning of Ministries
  • Central Secretariat
  • Cabinet Secretary
  • Field organizations
  • Reforms needed
  • International methodology

21. Panchayats

  • Provisions of 73rd AA and 74th AA
  • Role and functions of different tiers
  • Municipal Corporations
  • Municipal Councils
  • Nagar Panchayats
  • The steps taken towards women’s empowerment
  • Role of State Election commission
  • Role of State Finance Commission
  • Smart City Mission & Municipal Governance

22. Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions

  • What is Dispute redressal mechanism?
  • Need of Dispute redressal mechanisms
  • Administrative tribunal and issues
  • Fast Track Courts and issues
  • Gram Nyayalayas and issues
  • Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and issues
  • Family Courts and issues
  • Lok Adalat and issues
  • NALSA and issues
  • Dispute redressal for Weaker section
  • Arbitration Mechanism
  • International Arbitral Centre
  • Commercial Court

23. Comptroller And Auditor-General of India

  • Appointment
  • Functions
  • Role of CAG in good governance

24. The Governor

  • Appointment, term of office, qualification, etc
  • Powers
  • Discretionary powers
  • Ordinance making power

25. Chief Minister

  • Appointment
  • Powers and responsibilities
  • Relationship between the Governor and the Chief Minister
  • Relationship between CoM and the Chief Minister

26. The Advocate-General for the State

  • Appointment
  • Functions

27. State legislature

  • The composition of Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad
  • Qualifications of the Members of Legislature
  • Powers and Functions of State Legislature
  • Relationship between both the Houses
  • Officers of State Legislature
  • Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
  • Legislative procedure
  • Governor’s assent to Bills
  • Procedure in Financial Matters/Budget

 

Governance

  1. Need and importance of Government Policies
  • Growth and development
  • Human development and human capital formation
  • Equality (interpersonal and interregional) and social justice
  • Unity and integrity
  • Trust between state and citizens

2. Effective Implementation

  • What is effective implementation? Best outcomes in view of given time, resources and constraints
  • Analysis of different important schemes

3. Government intervention

  • Good Governance-Role of institutions, bureaucrats and other stakeholders
  • Transparency and accountability
  • Optimum use of resources- Right targeting, plugging leakages and wasteful expenditure, use of available knowledge, research and innovation.
  • Monitoring and evaluation- Outcome budget, zero base budgeting, input output analysis, cost-benefit analysis
  • Setting up institutions and regulatory norms task forces, steering committees and review committees.

4. Development process and industry

  • Difference between Growth and Development
  • Main Constraints of development
  • Main Stakeholders in development process
  • Self Help Groups
    • Meaning
    • Importance
    • Objectives
    • Institutional Structure and organization
    • Funding
  • Micro Finance
    • Meaning and importance
    • Objectives
    • Structure and Organization
    • Advantages
    • Micro Finance in India
  • Non-Government Organizations
    • What are NGOs?
    • Difference between Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs)
    • United Nations Criteria for INGO and NGO
    • NGOs and development projects
  • NGOs and Community development
  • NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation
  • NGOs involved in disaster management
  • NGOs and advocacy

5. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

  • Citizen centric governance
  • Features of good governance
  • Legislative accountability
  • Administrative accountability
  • Judicial accountability
  • Ombudsman
  • Whistleblowers concept
  • Anti corruption machinery
  • Role of citizens
  • Role of media
  • Social audit
  • Systematic reforms

6. e-Governance

  • Introduction
  • Applications
  • Models
  • Successes
  • Limitations
  • Future prospects

7. Citizens Charters

  • Citizens Charters
  • Introduction
  • Models
  • Features
  • CC in India
  • Issues in CC implementation
  • Reform needed

8. Role of civil services in a democracy

  • Concept of civil services
  • Need for civil services
  • Different role of civil services
  • Law making
  • Policy formulation
  • Policy implementation
  • Policy evaluation
  • Civil services as protector of democracy
  • To protect minorities (religious and linguistic)
  • To promote Inclusive and sustainable growth

9. Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

  • What are pressure groups?
  • Types
  • The significance of pressure groups in India
  • Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party
  • Evaluation of pressure groups role

 

10. Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies

  • Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment) - composition of CAG
  • Functions and responsibilities of CAG
  • Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
  • Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment) - composition of ECI
  • Functions and responsibilities of ECI
  • Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament)
  • Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC
  • Functions and responsibilities of UPSC
  • Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
  • Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment) - composition of Finance commission
  • Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission
  • Powers and privileges of the Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
  • National commission for SCs and STs.

11. Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

  • SEBI
  • CVC
  • CBI
  • Planning Commission
  • NDC
  • PMO
  • Zonal Council
  • TRAI
  • IRDA
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • State Human Rights Commission
  • Central Information Commission
  • State Information Commission
  • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  • Tribunal
  • Medical Council Of India
  • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority
  • Biodiversity Authority Of India
  • Press Council Of India
  • Forward Markets Commission
  • Inland Waterways Authority Of India
    • RBI

12. Elections in India

  • Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
  • Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951
  • Electoral reforms
  • Criminalization of politics
  • Negative or neutral voting
  • State funding of Elections
  • Irregularities in polling

13. Political Parties in India

  • Political parties in India
  • Party reforms
  • Problems in the working of parties 
  • Casteism and politics
  • Reforms in Party system in India
  • Strengthening of Anti-defection measures

14. Role of Pressure Groups

  • Types of pressure groups
  • Role of pressure group in developing countries
  • Functions of pressure groups in India
  • Pressure groups and Methods
  • Pressure groups and Democracy
  • Criticism of pressure groups

Recent Developments

  1. Bills
  • Representation of People (Amendment) Bill 2010
  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016’
  • Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Bill, 2016
  • The Anti-Hijacking Act, 2016
  • Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
  • Lokpal & Lokayukta (Amendment) Act, 2016
  • Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2016
  • Whistleblowers Amendment Bill

 

  1. Union & State Government
  • Imposition of President Rule: An Analysis
  • Frequent promulgation of Ordinance
  • Provisions related to Removal of Governors
  • Politicization of the post of Governor
  • Relevance of Rajya Sabha
  • Frequent disruption of Parliament and its impact
  • Anti-Defection Law
  • Issue related to Office of Profit
  • Special privileges to MPs and its implication
  • Freebies Politics in India
  • Political Parties and RTI
  • Basics of Separation of Power in India
  1. Judiciary
  • Issue related to appointment of judges
  • Proposal for National Court of Appeal
  • Concept of defamation in India
  • Contempt of Court
  • What are contempt proceedings?
  • Public Interest Litigation
  • Advocates (Amendment) Bill, 2017 Controversy
  • Issue of Judicial overreach
  • National Litigation Policy
  • All India Judicial Services
  • Judicial reforms
  • Future challenges may be faced by Indian Judiciary
  • Administrative Tribunals
  1. Local Government
  • Nagaland Reservation in Urban bodies: Issue
  • Education qualification made mandatory for contesting Local Government Elections
  • Reforms needed in Municipalities in Sync with Urban development Missions
  • 14th Finance Commission and Local Governments
  1. Elections
  • Simultaneous Elections: feasibility and benefits
  • Introduction of NOTA in elections
  • Bill on Right To Recall Legislators
  • Benefits of recognition as a National party
  • Provision of Compulsory Voting
  • State funding in elections
  • Corporate funding laws
  • Election Commission Proposal for countering bribe-for-votes
  • About Paper Trail Units
  • Issues related to the working of Political Parties
  • Voting rights to NRI
  • Role of civil society in free and fair election
  • Women voices in elections
  • Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms
  1. Organisations/Bodies
  • 14th Finance Commission: Analysis
  • 7th Pay Commission Report and Repercussions
  • AFSPA and Second ARC
  • Inter-State River Water Dispute
  • Role of Niti Aayog
  • Significance of Public Accounts Committee
  • Autonomy of CBI
  • Analysis of functioning of CAG
  • Right to Information
  • Accountability and transparency in NGOs
  • Need of Indian Skill Development Service
  1. Initiatives for Transparency & Accountability
  • Saving life and Good Samaritan Law
  • Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation (PRAGATI)
  • Right Based Approach in Policy Making
  • Direct Benefit transfer
  • Issues related to Making Aadhaar Mandatory
  • Reforms needed in Indian Bureaucracy
  • Performance appraisal system in bureaucracy
  • Curb on VIP culture
  1. Scheme
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • National Skill Development Mission
  • National Food Security Act, 2013
  • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
  • Smart City Mission
  • Namami Gange
  1. Reports & Policies
  • Niti aayog’s report on rationalization of Centrally Sponsored Schemes
  • Law Commission’s 268th Report on Bail Reforms
  • Law Commission Report on Hate Speech
  • Model Land Leasing Law prepared by NITI Aayog
  • Standing Committee Report on water conservation
  • Report on Working Group on Migration
  1. Miscellaneous
  • Liquor ban on highways: critical analysis
  • SC Makes National Anthem Mandatory
  • National Water Framework Bill
  • Regionalism: Demand for smaller states
  • Directly Elected Mayor
  • Special category status to states: Meaning and demand
  • Analysis of Singur Verdict
  • Debate on the issue of Lobbying in India
  • Media Role and Censorship issue
  • Fundamental Duties – Awareness Campaigns is the Duty of Centre
  • National Anthem - Mandatory in Cinema Halls - Article 51(a)
  • Prevention of Insults to National Honor Act, 1971
  • Triple Talaq Issue
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • MGNREGA: Right to Work
  • Making AADHAR Mandatory Violates Fundamental Rights


 

International Relations

India & Neighbours

  1. India – Nepal Relations
  • Background of Relation
  • Political
  • Economic
  • The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation
  • Social
  • Psychological
  • The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  • Recommendations to Improve Relations
  1. India and Bhutan
  • Economy: A Broad Overview
  • India, Bhutan and China: issues
  • The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister
  1. Indo-Afghan Bilateral Relations
  • A Long History of Bilateral Relations
  • The India-Afghanistan Development Partnership
  • Strategic factors undergirding India’s Partnership with Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal
  • Options for India
  1. India-Bangladesh Relations
  • Development Partnership
  • India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy
  • Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis
  1. India-Maldives Relations
  • Geostrategic Importance of Maldives
  • Development Cooperation
  • Security Risks
  1. India-Sri Lanka Relations
  • Commercial Relations
  • Developmental Cooperation
  • Fishermen Issue
  1. India-Myanmar Relations
  • Relation through ages
  • Recent change in policy
  • China Role
  1. Indo-Pak Relations
  • Major Crisis
  • Water Dispute
  • Current Internal Scenario
  • Impact on India
  • Developments in Last One Year
  1. Indo-China Relations
  • Economic Relation
  • China India Water Related Issue
  • “String of Pearls Strategy”
  • China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India
  1. South China Sea Dispute
  • Main Disputes
  • Resources as a Driver of Competition
  • Attempts for Resolution
  • India and South China Dispute
  1. Security Challenges in the Indian Ocean Region
  • The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift
  • South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust
  • Piracy off the coast of Somalia
  • Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism
  • Energy Routes
  • Fisheries and Livelihood Issues
  • Environmental Security
  • Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace
  • India and Asian Nations relations

India & Asian Nations Relations

1. CIS Countries of Central Asia

  • India-Turkmenistan
  • India-Kazakhstan
  • India Tajikistan
  • China And Central Asia
  • International North-South Transport Corridor
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

2. India-Mongolia

  • India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation
  • Deal on Uranium Supply
  • Visit

3. India – UAE Relations

  • Political and economic relation
  • Oil Economic Relation

4. India – IRAN

  • Iran Nuclear Deal and India
  • India Iran Relations
  • US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran

5. India – ISRAEL

  • Israel and Palestine
  • India – Israel Relations

6. India – Saudi Arabia

  • Areas of Cooperation
  • Challenges in relations

7. Asia-Pacific Region

  • Zones of Activity
  • Regional Groupings
  • Geopolitics of Asia Pacific

8. India-South East Asia

  • Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations
  • India-ASEAN Security Co-operation

9. Indo-Japan Bilateral Relationship

  • Economy Centric Relationship
  • Contemporary Perspective

10. India – South Korea

  • India South Korea Relations
  • Economic Partnership in Recent Years

11. India-Vietnam

  • Economic Cooperation
  • Strategic Cooperation
  • Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation
  • China’s Response
  • India’s Response

India & Asian Nations Relations

  1. Indian Diaspora
  • Role played by Indian Diaspora
  • Issue of safety of Indians abroad
  • Schemes for Welfare of Overseas Indian
  • Narendra Modi and Indian Diaspora

India & Other Nation & Institutions

  1. India and Africa
  • Historical Connections
  • Gandhi’s Role
  • Nehru’s Role
  • Strengthening of Ties
  • South-south Engagement
  • Current Dynamics
  • Economic Cooperation
  • Human resources development and capacity building
  • Energy Cooperation
  • Military Security Co-operation
  • Trade Policy under Modi
  • Afro-Indian Trade
  • Indian investment in Africa
  • African investment in India
  • Development cooperation and assistance
  1. Indo-Australia Relationship
  • Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora
  • Economic Relationship
  • Issue of Nuclear Cooperation
  • India-Russia Bilateral Relationship
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization
  • Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia
  1. France
  • Strategic Partnership
  • Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France
  1. Germany
  • Indian-Germany Economic Relations
  1. United Kingdom
  • Ties in Current Context
  • Scotland’s Referendum
  • India & BREXIT
  1. India-US Relations
  • Area of Cooperation: Strategic Consultations
  • Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security
  • Area of Cooperation : Trade and Economic
  • Area of Cooperation : Energy and Climate Change
  • Area of Cooperation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space
  • Area of Cooperation : People to People Ties
  • Area of Cooperation : Defence Cooperation
  • Intellectual Property Issues
  • India and International Organisations
  1. The World Trade Organization
  • Representation in the WTO and Economic Groupings
  • How the WTO takes Decisions
  • The WTO Secretariat and Budget
  • How Countries Join the WTO
  • Assisting Developing and Transition Economies
  • Specialized Help for Export Promotion
  • The WTO’s Part in Global Economic Policy-making
  • Nairobi Package adopted at 10th WTO Ministerial Conference
  • WTO reports rise in protectionism
  1. International Monetary Fund
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • India gets more Voting Rights in IMF Reforms
  1. Nuclear Security Summit
  • The fourth Nuclear Security Summit: 2016
  • Threats of Nuclear Terrorism
  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
  • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
  • Recent Support for NSG Membership for India
  • Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG?
  • Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG?
  • Argument in favour for India Joining NSG
  1. BRICS
  • Economic Environment in BRICS Countries
  • Last BRICS Summit in Goa, India
  • BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit
  1. BIMSTEC
  • Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters
  1. IBSA
  • IBSA Potential
  • Need for Revitalizing IBSA
  • India’s Policy Options
  • Technological Collaboration
  1. SAARC
  • Indo-Pak Conflict
  • Problem of Resource Development
  • Prospects For SAARC
  1. Relevance of Non-Alignment in present India
  • What is NAM?
  • Relevance in present era
  1. India-ASEAN Economic Cooperation
  • Singapore
  • Vietnam
  • Indonesia
  • India ASEAN FTA in Service

 

Economy

Basic Economy

  1. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning
  • Indian Economy in Pre-independence Period
  • Economy on Eve of Independence
  • Challenges
  • Features
  • Post-Independence India
  • Issues
  • Agriculture and its development so far
  • Industry
  • Services
  • Phases of Economic Development in India
  • Nehruvian Socialist Economy
  • Economic Reforms
  • Planning
  • Objectives
  • Technical details
  • Planning History
  • Analysis of each plan
  1. Resource Mobilization
  • Types of resources: Physical capital and finance capital
  • Need for resource mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State
  • Sources of resource mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector
  • Savings and investment over the five year plan
  • Budgetary resources: Tax and Non tax
  • Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.
  • Role of fiscal and monetary policies in resource mobilization
  • Role of foreign investment in resource mobilization, desirability and consequences
  • Multilateral agencies and resource mobilization
  1. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it
  • Meaning and concept of Inclusion
  • India’s experience
  • Social sector initiatives and inclusion process
  • Ground reality and working of flagship schemes
  • India’s growth story in this context
  • Why is India's growth not inclusive?
  • Rural economy based growth
  • Need for Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth.
  • Public distribution schemes: Way to inclusive growth.
  • Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth.
  • Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth
  • Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth.
  • Public private partnership for inclusive growth
  • Industrial Integration for inclusive growth
  • Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth.
  1. Government Budgeting
  • Budget terminology
  • Types of budget
  • Features of outcome budgeting
  • Merger of Railway and General Budget
  • Benefits of budgeting
  • Flaws in budgeting process
  • Budget analysis
  1. Investment models
  • Measures of Investment
  • Capital and investment
  • Factors affecting investment
  • Classification of Investment
  • FDI
  • Angel Investors and Start-ups
  • M&A
  • Investment Models
  • Role of State
  • PPP (Public-Private Partnership)
  • Savings and Investment Trends
  1. Fiscal Policy
  • Fiscal Policy in India
  • Important Budgetary Terms and Fiscal Concept
  • Government Revenues & Spending
  • Deficits
  • Balance Sheet
  1. Taxation
  • Taxation Meaning
  • Principles of Taxation
  • Objectives of Taxation
  • Taxation for Mobilization of Resources
  • Tax System in India
  • Subsidies
  • Tax Reforms
  • GST
  1. Monetary policy in India
  • Instruments of Monetary Policy
  • Monetary policy in pre-reform Era (1948 – 1991)
  • Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991)
  • Urjit Patel Committee Report
  • Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting
  1. Financial system
  • Money Market in India
  • Capital Market in India
  • Indian Capital Market Regulatory Framework
  • Primary Market Reforms in India
  • Secondary Market Reforms in India
  1. Banking
  • Indian Banking System
  • Functions of Commercial Banks
  • Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India
  • Nationalization of Banks in India
  • Banking Reforms in India
  • New Bank Licence Criteria
  • Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria
  • Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)
  • Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India
  • Financial Inclusion
  • NPAs
  • Bills related to Banking
  1. Foreign trade & International Organisations
  • International Trade
  • Trade Policy
  • Balance of Payments
  • Foreign Capital
  • Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy
  • International Monetary Fund
  • WTO
  • World Bank Group
  • AIIB and NDB

Agriculture

  1. Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy
  2. Land resource
  • Land-use
  • Land capability classification
  • Causes of Land Degradation
  • Impact of Land Degradation
  • Steps taken by GOI
  • Sustainable Land Management
  1. Land Reforms
  • Objectives of Land Reforms in India
  • Progress of Land Reforms in India
  • Progress of Ceiling Legislation
  • NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing
  1. Agriculture Finance
  • Features of Agricultural Finance
  • Criteria for Agricultural Credit
  • Need for Agricultural Finance
  • Sources of Agricultural Finance
  • Problems of Agricultural Finance
  • Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture
  • Co-operative Credit Societies in India
  1. Agricultural Credit Institutions
  • Commercial Bank
  • Lead Bank Scheme
  • Multi Agency Approach
  • Regional Rural Banks
  • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
  • Reserve Bank of India
  • Kisan Credit Card Scheme
  • Self Help Group (SHG)
  • Bank Linkage Programme
  • Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)
  • Government Policy For Agricultural Credit
  • Farmers Service Societies (FSS)
  1. Crop Insurance in India
  • Historical Background
  • Issues Related to Crop Insurance
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
  • Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes
  • Challenges
  1. Agriculture Marketing
  • Process of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing
  • Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Analysis of APMC Act
  1. Subsidies
  • Objectives of subsidies
  • Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies
  • Farm Subsidies
  • Fertiliser subsidies
  • Subsidy on power
  • Subsidy on irrigation
  • Rationale of Minimum Support Price
  • Impact of MSP on inflation
  • Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS
  • Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers
  • Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB
  • Important questions on the future of subsidies
  1. Agricultural Revolutions in India
  • Green Revolution
  • White Revolution – Operation Flood
  • Yellow Revolution
  • Blue Revolution
  • Golden Fiber Revolution: Jute
  1. Food Processing
  • Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors
  • Policy Initiatives
  • Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector
  • Issues in Food Processing Sector
    • FDI Policy in Food Processing
    • Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector
    • Strategies Adopted in Budget
    • New foreign and domestic investment
    • Sector-specific government policies

 

INDUSTRY

  1. Industrial policy and industrial development: Main Issues
  • Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 1948 and 1956 critically
  • New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization
  • Phases of Industrial development
  1. Main features of Industrial development in India
  • Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.
  • Strategies for disinvestment and privatization
  • Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization
  • New Manufacturing Policy
  • Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors
  • SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income
  • Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues
  • Main constraints in the industrial development of India
  • Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India
  • Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship
  • Make in India achievements

TRANSPORT

  • Transport
  • Importance and development of transport
  • Means of transport
  • Transport costs and economic distance
  • Operating costs in transport
  • Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport
  • Profits and freight rates
  • Government’s transport policy
  • Transport patterns in the world:
  • Oceanic transport Ocean transport routes
  • Inland waterways
  • Main regions of inland waterways
  • Railways: Factors affecting the railroads
  • Distribution of railroads in the world
  • Factors influencing air transport
  • Pipeline Transport
  • Petroleum (oil) Pipelines
  • Gas Pipelines
  • Transport costs and specialization
  • Transport and trade in the modern era
  • Transport costs and scale economies
  • Falling transport costs increase trade between neighbours
  • Failing transport costs lead to concentration within countries
  • Negative externalities of transport
  • Important issues
    • Ownership and financing
    • Pricing of Public utilities
    • Infrastructure as avenues for investment
    • Project delays-reasons and measures to overcome
    • Public Private Partnership and related issues
    • Operation and Maintenance of roads, railways, irrigation and power projects-Main problems and solutions
    • Impact of Infrastructure-Economic impacts, impact on social development, environmental impacts

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

  1. Finance
  • Changes in Budget process in India
  • Public Debt Management Cell
  • IBBI and INSOLVENCY RULES
  • Demonetization and its impact
  • Goods and Services Tax
  • Digital Payments scenario
  • Task Force Releases draft Bill to establish a Financial Data Management Center
  • Task Force report on Financial Redress Agency Released
  • Law Commission submits report on Income Tax related to Minors
  • Consumer get free hand on paying service charge
  • Monetary Policy Committee Review
  • Report of Working Group on development of Corporate Bond Market in India
  • Concept of municipal bonds
  • Lower taxes, higher compliance: implication on economy
  1. Banking
  • Bank Consolidation: Pros and Cons
  • Concept of willful defaulter
  • Concept of bad bank
  • Shadow banking
  • Non Performing Assets
  • Debate on RBI autonomy
  • Indradhanush Analysis
  • MCLR regime
  • Unified Payment Interface
  • India’s Post payment bank
  • Issue of Balance Sheet Syndrome
  • Differentiated Bank Licenses
  1. Industry
  • Standing Committee submits report on Industrial Policy
  • Draft National Food Processing Policy Released
  • Initiatives for Fund for start-ups
  • Companies need to look beyond CSR
  • Merger of telecoms
  • National Company Law Tribunal
  • Initiatives to support MSME sector
  • Model Shop and Establishment Bill, 2016
  • National Capital Goods Policy
  • H1B visa rules and IT sector
  • Ease of doing business initiatives in Realty sector
  • Coal linkage policy
  • Ministry releases Draft Labor Code on Social Security
  • Analysis of Competition Commission of India
  1. Agriculture
  • NITI Aayog report on Agriculture
  • Agricultural Index by NITI Aayog
  • Defects in Procurement Policy
  • Reforming trade in agriculture products
  • Report on incentivising production of pulses released by Ministry of Finance
  • Draft Model APMC Act, 2016 released
  1. Infrastructure
  • Sagarmala project
  • Inland waterways in India
  • Safety issues in Railways
  • Draft policy for providing New Suburban Rail Systems released
  • NITI Aayog releases report on the impact of social service obligations by Railways
  • Indian Railway Tourism Policy
  • Aviation Sector and Regional Connectivity Scheme
  • Air Service Agreement
  • HELP
  • Ministry of Power releases guidelines on cross-border trading of electricity
  • Supreme Court bans sale of vehicles not compliant with BS IV standards
  • Multi-Modal Transport System
  1. External sector
  • Model Bilateral investment treaty
  • Phasing out of FIPB
  • FDI status and issues
  • Permanent residency status to foreign investors
  • Dispute Settlement Mechanism in WTO
  • Increase in International Trade Dispute
  • FTP 2015-20
  • Reforms in IMF quota 
  1. Committees
  • FSLRC - Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission: Analysis
  • Nachiket Mor Committee Report
  • PJ Nayak Committee
  • Vijay Kelkar Committee on PPP
  • Parthasarathi Shome committee on GAAR
  • Urjit Patel Committee Report on Monetary Policy
  • Mahapatra Committee (NBFC Loan Restructuring)
  • Usha Thorat Committee
  • Debroy Committee on Railways
  • N.K. Sing Panel Report on FRBM
  • Shanta Kumar Committee
  • Ratan Watal Committee on Digital Payments
  1. Miscellaneous
  • Unemployment survey
  • India’s first International Arbitration Centre inaugurated.
  • Ponzi scheme and Issues
  • Fat tax: concept analysis
  • National Student Startup Policy

 

Science & Technology

Biology

  1. Chemical Building Blocks of Life
  2. History and Origin of Life
  3. Cells
  • Cell Structure
  • Membranes
  • Cell-Cell Interactions
  • Energy and Metabolism
  • Respiration
  • Photosynthesis
  • How Cells Divide
  • Sexual Reproduction
  1. Genetics
  • Inheritance
  • DNA, The Genetic Material
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Regulation
  • Mutation
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  1. Classification of Living Things
  • Classification and Domains of Life
  • General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Protists
  • Plants
  • Fungi
  • Animals
  1. Evolution
  • Evolution of Life
  • Animal Evolution
  • Human Evolution
  1. Tissues
  • Epithelial tissue
  • Connective tissue
  • Muscle tissue
  1. Economic Zoology
  • Beneficial animals: Corals - Earthworm -Vermiculture - Beneficial insects Prawns - Lobsters - Crabs – Pearl oysters - Fishes - Guano - Aquarium Vivarium
  • Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms Vectors - Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms - Pests.
  1. Endocrine System
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pineal body (epiphysis)
  • Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  • Thyroid
  • Adrenal glands
  • Reproductive glands
  1. Respiration
  • External and Internal Respiration
  • Respiratory system in Plants
  • Respiratory System in Insects
  • Respiratory System in Humans and Animals
  1. The Transport System in Organisms
  • Transport system in a Cell
  • Transport System in Plants
  • Transport System in Animals
  • Blood Vascular System
  • The Lymphatic System
  1. Skeletal and Muscular Systems
  • Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology)
  • Ligaments (Syndesmology)
  • Muscular System (Myology)
  • Vertebrates
  1. Reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Asexual Reproduction in Animals
  • Sexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Sexual Reproduction in Animals
  • Sexual Reproduction in Humans
  1. Excretion, Osmoregulation and Thermoregulation
  • Excretory products
  • Excretion in plants
  • Excretion in Animals
  • Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals
  • Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments
  1. Nutrition
  • Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon
  • Plant Nutrition
  • Animal Nutrition
  • Human Diet
  • The Digestive System

Institutions & Policy

  • India’s policy in the field of the science and technology
  • The S&T policy resolution in 1958
  • S&T policy of the 1983
  • S&T policy of the 2003
  • S&T policy 2013
  • Institutional structure
  • Department of Science & Technology
  • CSIR
  • Survey of India
  • Science and Engineering Research Council
  • Technology Development Board
  • National Accreditation Board For Testing And Calibration Laboratories
  • Science and technology as a source of Human Resource Development
  • Awards related to Science
  • New Initiatives Aligned with the National Agenda
  • India and World collaboration in science projects
  • Technology Vision Document 2035
  • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020
  • National Intellectual Property Rights Policy
  • Organ donation rules in India
  • Policy on Synthetic Biology

Biotechnology

  1. Genetics and biotechnology
  • Industrial genetics
  • Protoplast and cell fusion technologies
  • Genetic engineering
  • DNA sequencing
  • Nucleic acid probes
  • Genomics and proteomics
  • Antisense and RNA interface
  • Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering
  • Bioprocess/fermentation technology
  1. Biological fuel generation
  • Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels
  • Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy source
  • Biofuels from biomass
  • Bioethanol from biomass
  • Biodiesel
  • Methane
  • Hydrogen
  1. Environmental Biotechnology
  • Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology
  • Waste water and sewage treatment
  • Landfilling technologies
  • Composting
  • Bioremediation
  • Detect and monitoring of pollutants
  • Microbes and the geological environment
  • Environmental sustainability and clean technology
  1. Plant and Forest Biotechnology
  • Plant biotechnology
  • Forest biotechnology
  1. Animal and Insect Biotechnology
  • Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals
  • Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines
  • Animal organs for human patients
  • Genetically modified insects
  1. Food and beverage biotechnology
  • Food and beverage fermentations
  • Microorganisms as food
  • Enzymes and food processing
  • Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners
  • Organic acids and polysaccharides
  • Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods
  • Biotechnology and medicine
  • Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals
  • Antibiotics
  • Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies
  • Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Molecular biology and human disease
  • Diagnostics in developing countries
  • Gene Therapy
  • Systems biology and medicine
  • Stem cell biotechnology
  1. Protection of biotechnological inventions
  • Patent protection Trade secrets
  • Plant breeders’ rights
  1. Recent initiatives in Health & Biotechnology
  • Diseases in News
  • India Declared Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free
  • IPV Injection
  • Mission Indradhanush
  • New TB Drug Regimen
  • E-Cigarettes
  • Digital Biopiracy
  • Kendrapara Sheep
  • DNA Tagging of Convicts
  • U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence
  • Genetically Modified Mosquito
  • Designer Babies’ OR Three Parents Babies
  • U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence
  • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020
  1. Space
  • Types of orbits
  • Launch Vehicle
  • Satellite communication in India
  • INSAT Satellite application
  • Remote sensing applications
  • Cryogenic rockets
  • Global Positioning System
  • Galileo
  • GLONASS
  • IRNSS
  • GAGAN
  • Chandrayaan – I & II
  • Mars Orbiter Mission
  • Space Organisations
  • Space race/Space junk
  • Recent updates
  • South Asia Satellite: Significance
  • Neutrino Observatory
  • Solar Mission- ADITYA
  • Gravitational Waves
  • FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope)
  • Spitzer Space Telescope
  • Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
  • Chandra X-ray Observatory
  • James Webb Space Telescope
  • ARIES/Devasthal Telescope
  • Multi Application Solar Telescope
  • Thirty Metre Telescope
  • Resourcesat- 2A
  • ASTROSAT
  • Sunspot
  • Magnetars
  • Neutron stars
  • Air-breathing propulsion system
  • Space Junk
  • Graveyard Orbit
  • India, NASA join hands for
  • Astrobiology Mission
  • Neutrino Observatory
  • Indian Space Vision-2025
  1. Defence
  • Missile system and classification
  • On the basis of type
  • On the basis of launch vehicle
  • On the basis of Range
  • On the basis of propulsion system
  • India’s Missile System
    • Agni
    • Prithvi
    • Trishul
    • Nag
    • Dhanush
    • Astra
    • Prahaar
  • BrahMos Missile System
  • Indian Submarines and Naval Ships
  • Light Combat Aircraft
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
  • Stealth technology
  • Chemical Weapon
  • Biological Weapon
  1. NUCLEAR ENERGY
  • Types of nuclear reactions
  • Nuclear Power Reactor
  • N-Power Policy of India
  • Advantages of Nuclear Energy
  • Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
  • Non-energy applications of Nuclear energy
  • Impact of Radiation
  • Issue of Radioactive Waste
  • Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB
  • Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants
  • Nuclear & Radiological Disasters
  1. IT, Electronics & Telecom
  • Computers
  • Generation of computers
  • Computer terminologies
  • Supercomputer and its applications
  • Information technology
  • Components of IT
  • IT enabled services
  • Application of IT
  • Display technologies
  • Cathode ray
  • LCD
  • LED
  • Plasma Monitors
  • OLED
  • Telecommunications
  • Mobile generations
  • Smartphone
  • Important concepts
  • Government initiatives
  • Digital India Initiative
  • MeghRaj
  • Code Free for India
  • E-Kranti
  • Bharat Net project
  • Bharat QR
  • Contemporary debates
  • Net Neutrality
  • Internet of Things
  • Big Data Initiative and Privacy
  • Cyber crime and security
  1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN IT & TELECOM
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra
  • BharatQR
  • Digital Transaction Methodologies
  • Smart Credit Cards
  • Bharat Net Project
  • Wi-fi Technology
  • BlockChain Technology and Bitcoins
  • Digital Terrestrial Television
  • Transmission System
  • Disaster Management Network
  • Param Ishan
  • Internet of Things
  1. Nano-Science & Nano Technologies
  • What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?
  • Origination of Nanoscience and Technology
  • Basics of Nanoscience
  • Nanomaterials
  • Applications of nanotechnology
  • Nano medicine
  • Semiconductors and computing
  • Food
  • Textiles
  • Sustainable energy
  • Environment
  • Transport
  • Space
  • Agriculture
  • Adverse Health and Environmental
  • Impacts of Nanotechnology
  • Social and Ethical Impacts:
  • Nano-science and nano-technology in India
  1. Robotics
  • What is Robotics?
  • Machine vs Computer vs Robots
  • Parts of a Robot
  • Controller
  • Manipulator
  • End Effector
  • Sensor
  • Classification of Robots
  • Rolling Robots
  • Walking Robots
  • Autonomous Robots
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Applications of Robotics
  • Industrial Sector
  • Aerospace
  • Healthcare Delivery
  • Outer Space
  • Exploration
  • Military Robots
  • Disaster Areas
  • Entertainment
  • Agriculture
  • Domestic work

 

Environment & Ecology

ECOLOGY & BIODIVERSITY

  1. Types of Ecology
  • Ecological Hierarchy
  • Scope of Ecology
  • Habitat & Ecological Niche
  • Deep vs Shallow Ecology
  • Ecological Principles
  • Ecological Community
    • Structure and Characteristics of a Community
    • Stratification
    • Ecotones
    • Ecological Dominance
    • Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation
    • Periodicity
    • Turnover
    • Interdependence
  • Ecological Succession
    • Types and Process of Succession
    • Climax Community
  • Range of Tolerance , Maximum Range
  • Difference between Ecology ,
  • Environment and Ecosystem
  1. Ecosystem and its dynamics
  • Ecosystem Definitions
  • Functions and Properties of Ecosystem
  • The Structure/Components of Ecosystem
    • Abiotic Components
    • Biotic Components
  • Ecosystem Dynamics
    • Flow of Energy in Ecosystem
    • Trophic Levels
    • Food Chain
    • Types & Significance of Food Chain
    • Food Web
    • Models for Energy Flow
    • Ecological Productivity
    • Ecological Pyramid
  • Biomagnifications
  • Biological Control
  • Organic Farming
  1. Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Parts of a Bio Geochemical Cycle
  • Types of Biogeochemical Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle
    • Sulphur Cycle
  1. Biomes: Forest, Grassland, Mountain, and Desert Ecosystems
  • Biome
  • Grasslands
  • Tundra
  • Deserts
  • Thar desert
  • Mountain biome
  1. Aquatic Life Zones: Ocean, Rivers, Lakes, and Wetlands
  • Aquatic ecosystems
  • Basic facts about the ocean
  • Importance of the ocean
  • Zones of the ocean
    • Marine life
  • Coral reefs
  • Coral reefs in India
  • Conserving coral reefs
  • Mangroves
  • Mangroves in India
  • Freshwater in India
  • Importance of lakes
  • National Lake Conservation Plan
  • Wetlands and their importance
  • Ramsar Convention
  • Ramsar Sites
  • Montreux Record
  • Extent and distribution of wetlands in India
  • Conserving the wetlands of India
  1. Biodiversity Basics
  • Biodiversity
  • Important kinds of biodiversity
  • Degree of diversity in an ecosystem
    • Endemic species
  • Keystone species
  • Indicator species
  • Invasive species
  • Allopatric and sympatric speciation
  • Bioinformatics
    • Biodiversity distribution
  • Megadivers Countries
  • Uses and values of biodiversity
  • State of global biodiversity
  • Threats to biodiversity
  • Biodiversity Hotspots
  • Eco-regions
  • Role of traditional knowledge in biodiversity
  • Biopiracy
  • Extinction of species
  • Mass extinction
  • IUCN’s classification scheme
  • IUCN Red-List of Threatened Species
  • Level of biodiversity in India
  • Biogeographic classification of India
  1. Biodiversity Conservation
  • Ex-situ aid in-situ conservation
  • Seed banks
  • Zoos in biodiversity conservation
  • Botanical gardens
  • Protected areas
  • State of protected areas in the world
  • UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB)
  • Characteristics of biosphere reserves
    • International agreements for biodiversity conservation
  • Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Cartagena Protocol
  • Nagoya Protocol
  • Aichi Biodiversity Targets
    • Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas of India
  • Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of India
  • Global Tiger Initiative
  • Project Tiger
  • Project Elephant
  • Indian Rhino Vision
  • Recovery Programme for Critically Endangered Species
    • Use of indigenous knowledge for conserving biodiversity
    • Seed village
  1. Effect of Human Activities on Environment
  • Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment
  • Effect of Housing on Environment
  • Effect of Power Generation on Environment
  • Effect of River Valley Projects

(Water Resource Projects) on Environment

  • Effect of Mining on Environment
  • Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment
  • Effect of Tourism on Environment
  1. Water Resource degradation
  • Water Cycle (Hydrological Cycle)
  • Availability and Quality Aspects (groundwater depletion)
  • Water-borne and Water-induced Diseases
  • Fluoride Problem in Drinking Water
  • Arsenic Problem in Drinking Water
  1. Minerals & Environmental Degradation
  • Mining and Environment
  • Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining
  • Impact of Mining
  • Indirect Impact of Mining
  • International Laws on Mining
  • Main Act or Statute to regulate the impact of Indian Mining Sector
  • Sustainable Mining
  1. Deforestation
  • Causes of Deforestation
  • Implications of Deforestation for Climate Change
  • Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India
  • Impact of Deforestation on Indian Monsoon
  • Impact of Deforestation on People
  • Deforestation Leads to Water and Soil Resources Loss and Flooding
  • Economical Impacts
  • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
  • Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests
  • Legislations for Conservation of Forests using People Participation
  • Steps for Improving People Participation in Forest Resource Management
  • Use of Local Traditional Methods
  1. Waste Management
  • Solid Waste
  • Hazardous Waste
  • E-Waste
  • Bio Medical Waste
  • Plastic Waste
  • Methods for Waste Management
  • Effects of Poor Waste Disposal
  • Landfill
  1. Sustainable Development
  • Principles of sustainability
  • Measurement of Sustainability or Sustainable Ethics or Equitable Utilisation of Natural Resource
  • Sustainable Lifestyle (Role of an individual in sustainable, development)
  • Challenges to Sustainable Development
  • International Efforts to Achieve Sustainability
  1. Environmental Pollution
  • Air Pollution
  • Sources of Air Pollution
  • Effects of Air Pollution
  • Classification of Air Pollutant
  • Control Measures of Air Pollution
  • Air Pollution Disasters
  • Long Range Transport of Gaseous Air Pollutants
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards
  • Water Pollution
  • Sources of Water Pollution
  • Types of Water Pollutants
  • Effects of Water Pollution
  • Water Quality Standards
  • Control of Water Pollution
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Sources of Thermal Pollution
  • Effects of Thermal Pollution
  • Control of Thermal Pollution
  • Soil Pollution or Land Degradation
  • Sources of Soil Pollution
  • Effects of Soil Pollution
  • Control Measures
  • Noise Pollution
  • Air-borne Diseases
  • Toxic Substances: Toxicant, Toxicity and Toxicology
  • Factors affecting toxicity
  • Carcinogens
  1. Solid Waste Management
  • Sources of Solid Waste
  • Effect of Solid Waste
  • Control Measures of Solid Waste
  • Solid Waste Management Rules
  • Hazardous Waste Management (HWM)
  1. Coastal Ecosystem Management
  • Mangroves
  • Salient features of Mangroves
  • Importance of Mangroves
  • Mangroves in India
  • Mangroves under threats
  • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
  • Estuaries
  • Importance of estuaries
  • Threats to estuaries
  • Coral Reefs
  • Geographical Conditions Required
  • Uses of coral reefs
  • Conservation of coral reef
  • Steps for Coastal Ecosystem Management
  1. Recent developments
  • Air Pollution
  • Report on Air Pollution
  • Bharat Stage Emission Standards
  • Polluters Pay Model
  • Household Air Pollution
  • Open Waste Burning and its Impact
  • Graded Response Action Plan on Pollution
  • UN Sets Limits on Global Airline Emissions
  • Waste Management
  • Biodegradable Plastics
  • Green Train Corridors
  • Oil Spill
  • Solid Waste Management-Buffer Zone
  • Other News
  • Report of Parliamentary Committee on Forest Fires
  • Urban Forestry Scheme
  • Draft Notification to Regulate Pet Shops
  • Ban on Import of Animal Skin
  • River linking Project and Impact on
  • Environment
  • Algal Bloom Issue
  • Illegal Salt Mining and its Impact
  • India’s Wetland Report, 2016
  • Deep Sea Mining
  • Mass Coral Bleaching
  • Ganga River Pollution
  1. Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Government Body which Executes EIA
  • Environmental Effects Analysed under EIA
  • Process of EIA
  • EIA Ruling 1984
  1. Environmental Laws
  • Environmental Laws: Provisions in the Indian Constitution towards Environmental Protection
  • Salient Features of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981*
  • Salient Features of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  • Salient features of Forest Conservation Act, I980
  • Salient Features of Wildlife Protection Act,1972
  • Salient Features of Environment (Protection) Act,1986
  • Role of Government in Environmental Protection
  1. Environment related Institutions and Organizations
  • Pollution Control Boards
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Forest Survey of India
  • National Board for Wildlife
  1. Schemes
  • Ecomark Scheme
  • National Afforestation Program
  • National River Conservation Plan
  • National Mission for Clean Ganga
  • National Air Quality Index (AQI)
  • National Action
  • Programme to Combat Desertification
  • UJALA Scheme
  • Bharat Stage Norms
  1. International Environmental Governance
  • UNEP
  • UNDP
  • Centre for Biological Diversity
  • WWF for Nature
  • IUCN - Red List
  • Birdlife International
  • International Conventions/Protocols & their Objectives
  1. Basics of Climate change
  • GreenHouse Effect and Global Warming
  • Global Climate Change: International Efforts to Control Global Warming or Global Climate Change
  • Ozone Layer Depletion/Ozone Hole
  • Acid Rain
  • El Nino
  • La Nina
  1. Urbanization and climate
  • Pollution in metros and climate change
  • Real estate boom and environment degradation
  • Urban Heat Island
  • Polythene bags and pollution
  • Methane generation from waste
  1. Impact of agriculture on climate
  • Agriculture increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • Monoculture practice impacts biodiversity
  • Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers
  • Soil-related effects
  • Fertilizers’ Effect on the Environment
  • Impact of livestock on environment
  • Impact of use of Pesticides on environment
  • Impact of GM crop on environment
  • Emission of Methane from agricultural practices
  • Sustainable Agriculture Techniques
  1. Global Warming & Health
  • Health impacts of global warming
  • Mosquito-borne diseases
  • Ozone depletion and human health
  1. Recent developments
  • Carbon Neutrality Concept
  • Climate Change Indicators: WMO report
  • IPCC 5th Assessment Report
  • Paris Agreement
  • Marrakech Climate Change Conference
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
  • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20)
  • Kigali Agreement
  • Climate Change Performance Index

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

  1. Wildlife
  • Man-Animal Conflicts in India
  • Poaching activities in India
  • Controlling wildlife crimes using sniffer dogs
  • Draft on animal cruelty
  • Formation of Tiger Reserves: Critical Analysis
  • International treaties for wildlife conservation
  • Use of drones for wildlife conservation
  1. Combating Pollution
  • Indoor Air Pollution and its impact
  • Impact of Particulate Matter
  • Smog and its impact
  • Plastic Pollution
  • Light Pollution
  • Oil Spill
  • Solid Waste Management
  • E-waste Management Rules 2016
  • Groundwater contamination
  • Bharat Stage Norm
  • What is the Polluters Pay Model?
  1. Climate Change
  • Paris Agreement
  • Marrakech Climate Change Conference
  • Kigali Agreement
  • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment)
  • International Solar Alliance
  • Programmes and Policies Initiated for Mitigating Climate Change
  • International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change
  • Carbon Neutrality Concept
  • Concept of Green Bond
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Carbon Tax Feasibility in India
  • Concept of Green Building
  • Climate Change and Cities
  • Ethical issue involved in climate change
  • Climate change and its impact on Health
  1. Renewable Energy
  • National Solar Mission
  • Status of Hydro Power energy in India
  • Status of Wind Energy in India
  • Green Transportation
  1. Initiatives for Environmental Conservation
  • Ganga River Pollution
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act
  • Draft National Wildlife Action Plan
  • Draft Wetland Management Rules
  • Initiatives to enhance green cover
  • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
  • Living status to Rivers
  • National Hydrology Project
  1. Environmental Institutions
  • Pollution Control Board: Analysis
  • National Green Tribunal: Analysis
  • Forest Survey of India
  • Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee
  • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
  • T S R Subramanian Panel Report
  1. Miscellaneous Issues
  • Algal bloom Issue
  • Melting of Antarctica and its impact
  • River linking project and its impact
  • Public participation for environmental conservation

 

Internal Security

  1. Internal Security Challenges
  • Internal Security Challenges
  • Social Diversity as Issues of Security Threat
  • Challenges from within
  • Neighbours as Issue of Security Threat
  • Non-State Actors as Issue of Security Threat
  • Global Indices and Measurement of Vulnerability of a State Towards such Non-State Actors
  • Law and Order vs. Internal Security
  1. Terrorism Threat to India
  • Terrorism Threat to India
  • Changing face of Terrorism
  • Terror Threats Faced by India
  • Broader Framework to Deal with Terrorism
  • Drawbacks in Intelligence Infrastructure
  1. Organized Crime
  • Types of Organized Crime
  • Problems in controlling organized crimes
  • Combating organized crimes
  • Linkage of Terrorism and Organized Crime in India
  1. Linkage between Development and Spread of Extremism
  • Stated Purpose of the Naxal Movement
  • Why did naxalism get huge support from the common man?
  • Why is naxalism the biggest threat to internal security?
  1. Insurgency in North-East
  • Issues & Conflicts
  • Assam Insurgency
  1. Security Challenges in Border Areas
  • Challenges to Border Management
  • Issues Faced in Border Management
  • Community Participation for Border Management
  1. Basics of Cyber Security
  • Types of Cyber Crimes
  • Impact and Steps needed
  • Recent Incident: Ransomware
  • The National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013
  1. Cyber Warfare
  • Factors Contributing/Aggravating Rise of Cyber Attack
  • Recent Initiatives for Tackling Cyber Warfare
  1. Social Media and Internal Security Threat
  • Regulation of Social Media in India for Internal Security
  • Challenges in Monitoring Social Media
  • Steps Needed
  1. Money Laundering
  • Meaning of Money Laundering
  • Harmful Effects of Money Laundering
  • Steps taken by the Government
  1. Black Money in India
  • Parallel Economy in India
  • What are the various measures taken by the Government to curb Black Money?
  • Impact of demonetisation on black money
  • Criticisms
  1. Police Reforms in India
  • The Organisational Structure
  • Duties and Responsibilities of the Police
  • Centre’s Role in Policing
  • Traditional Security Challenges
  • Non-Traditional Security Challenges (NTS)
  • Recommendations for Police Reforms
  • Police we Want in 21st Century
  1. Various Security Forces and their Mandate
  • Assam Rifles
  • Border Security Force (BSF)
  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
  • Central Reserve Police Force
  • National Security Guard
  • Issues with Paramilitary Forces

 

Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude

  1. Ethics Basic Introduction
  • Dimensions of Ethics
  • Essence of Ethics
  • Approaches of Ethical Study as Indian Perspective and Western Perspective
  • Basic concept of ethics morality and value
  • Ethics in public life
  • Ethics in Economic Life
  • Freedom and Discipline
  • Duties and Rights
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions
  • Values and Ethics in Government:
    • Legislature, Executive and judiciary
  • Contribution of Family in Value Education
  • Contribution of Society in Inculcating Values
  • Role of Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values
  1. Human Values
  • Human value & Socialization
  • Individual Personality and Value
  • Values and Skill
  • Fundamental and Instrumental Values
  • Democratic values
  • Role of ethical value in governance and society
  • Significance of value in civil services
  • Aesthetic values
  • Values in work life and professional ethics
  1. Aptitude and foundational values of civil services
  • Essential Aptitude for civil servants
  • Foundational Values of Civil Services
  • Neutrality
  • Anonymity
  • Civil Services Accountability
  • Integrity
  • Humility
  • Adaptability
  • Magnanimity
  • Perseverance
  • Impartiality and Non-Partisanship
  • Tolerance and compassion for the weaker section
  • Contribution to society
  1. India & World Thinkers
  • Indian Thinkers
    • Mahatma Gandhi
    • Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
    • Rabindranath Tagore
    • Swami Dayanand Saraswati
    • Mahadeva Govinda Ranade
    • Sri Aurobindo
    • Swami Vivekananda
    • Sardar Patel
    • Buddha Bhim Rao Ambedkar
    • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj
    • Mother Teresa
    • Amitabha Chowdhury
    • Aruna Roy
    • T. N. Seshan
    • E. Sreedharan
  • Administrative Thinkers
    • Max Weber
    • Elton Mayo
    • Peter Drucker
    • Chestar Barnard
    • Mary Parker Follet
  • World Thinkers
    • Plato
    • Aristotle
    • Socrates
    • Jeremy Bentham
    • JS Mill
    • Thomas Hobbes
    • John Locke
    • Jean Jacques Rousseau
    • John Rawls
    • Immanuel Kant
    • Carol Gilligan
    • Jean Paul Sartre
    • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    • Confucius
    • René Descartes
    • Karl Marx
    • Adam Smith
    • Thomas Aquinas
    • David Hume
    • Democritus
    • Galileo
    • Friedrich Nietzsche
    • Montesquieu
    • Voltaire
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • Indian & World Leaders
    • Benjamin Franklin
    • Martin Luther King
    • Dalai Lama
    • Nelson Mandela
    • Mahatma Gandhi
    • Siddhartha Gautama
    • Aung San Suu Kyi
    • Swami Vivekanand
    • Albert Einstein
    • Abraham Lincoln
    • Mother Teresa
    • J L Nehru
    • Lee Kuan Yew
    • Henry Ford
    • Abdul Kalam
    • Muhammad Yunus
    • Wangari Maathai
    • Kofi Annan
    • Lech Walesa
    • Desmond Tutu
    • Isaac Newton
    • Elie Wiesel
    • King Ashoka
    • Sun Yat Sen
  1. Attitude
  • Components of Attitude
    • Affective component
    • Cognitive component
    • Behavioral component
  • Functions of Attitude
    • Adjustive Function
    • Ego-Defensive Function
    • Value-Expressive Function
    • Knowledge Function
    • Attitude Formation Model
    • Impact of Beliefs and Values
    • Group Influences
    • Social Influence
    • Persuasion Tactics
    • Tools of Persuasion
    • Moral Attitude formation
    • Political Attitude formation
  1. Emotional Intelligence
  • Theories Associated with Emotional Intelligence
  • Can Emotional Intelligence be Developed?
  • Components of Emotional Competencies
    • The Self-Awareness Cluster: Understanding Feelings and Accurate Self-Assessment
    • The Self-Management Cluster: Managing Internal States, Impulses, and Resources
    • The Social Awareness Cluster: Reading People and Groups Accurately
    • The Relationship Management Cluster: Inducing Desirable Responses in Others
  • Importance of Emotional Intelligence at Workplace
  • Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Civil Services
  1. Values & Ethics in Public Administration
  • Ethical Concerns in Public Institution
  • Ethical Concerns in Private Institutions
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Public and Private Institutions
  • Laws, Rules and Regulations as Source of Ethical Guidance
  • Accountability and Ethical Governance
  • Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance
  • Moral Judgments in International Relations
  • Ethical Relation in Funding
  • International Relations and concept of Moral Responsibility
  • Ethics in working of international organizations
  • What is Corporate Governance?
  • Models of Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Steps taken by World Bank for Good Corporate Governance
  • Norms for Corporate Government in India
  • Concept of business ethics
  1. Probity in Governance
  • Concept of Public Service
  • Philosophical basis of Governance and Probity
  • Information Sharing, Transparency and Right to Information
  • Flaws in RTI and recommendations for improvement
  • Importance of vigilant citizens
  • Information sharing and participation
  • Importance of Code of ethics
  • Code of Ethics in Professions
  • Code of Conduct for Ministers; for Legislators; for Civil Servants; for Regulators and for the Judiciary
  • Components of a Citizen Charter
  • Steps in formulation of a Citizen’s Charter
  • Concept of Work Culture
  • The Indian Approach to Work
  • Methods of improving Work Culture
  • Quality of Service Delivery
  • Utilisation of Public Funds
  • Problems in Fund Release and Utilization
  • Parliamentary Control on Expenditure
  • Corruption in India: extent, dimension, and response
  • Corruption as a social evil
  • Probity in public life Corrupt practice among civil servants and official misconduct
  • Exposing corruption: Civil Society initiatives and role of Whistleblower Act
  • Tackling corruption: Role of government and institutions of governance
  • Controlling corruption: Various approaches and efficacy

Applied Ethics

  1. Euthanasia Issue
  • Social and ethical angle
  • Different arguments related to Euthanasia
  • Conclusion
  1. Surrogacy
  • Case study
  • Issues
  • Ethical Issues
  • Concept of ethical surrogacy
  • Conclusion
  1. Ethics & Sports
  • Importance of sports
  • Ethical Issue: Need for sportsmanship
  • Ethical Issue: Doping
  • Ethical Issue: Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
  • Ethical Issue: Sports as a Business
  • Steps needed
  1. Media Ethics
  • Role of Media
  • Ethical Issues faced by Reporters
  • Trial by Media
  • Media Prejudice
  • Ethical Dilemma faced by Photojournalists
  • Digital Media Ethics
  • Paid News
  1. Business Ethics
  • Principles of Business Ethics
  • Dimensions related to Business Ethics in Organisation
  • Business Ethics and Corporate Governance
  • Journey from Philanthropy to Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Issues in implementation of Business Ethics
  1. Ethics Related to Economic Sanctions
  • Why are Economic Sanctions placed?
  • Ethics in Economic Sanctions
  • Conclusion
  1. Refugees & Ethics
  • Why Migration occur?
  • Case study of Syria
  • Dilemmas related to Refugee crisis
  • Steps needed
  1. Ethical Dilemmas of Globalization
  • What is Globalisation
  • Free trade in Globalised world
  • Issues with Newly developed trade patterns
  • Criticism against global regime
  • Way forward
  1. Ethics of War
  • Ethics and War theories
  • Evils of war
  1. Environmental Ethics
  • Linkage between Ethics and Environment
  • Theories related to Environmental ethics
  • Role of individual
  1. Ethical Issues in Biotechnology
  • Issues related to Stem Cell
  • Issues related to cloning
  • Issues related to designer babies
  1. Animal Ethics
  • Introduction
  • Issues of conducting research on animals
  • Issue of keeping animals as pets
  • Issue of Cruelty against animals
  • Conclusion
  1. Food Adulteration and Ethics
  • Ethical dimension
  • Ethical issue related to food additive

14. Abortion: Ethical or Unethical

  • Law of abortion in India
  • Recent Supreme Court verdict
  • Ethical Issue: Health of Women vs. fetus
  • Justifi cation for abortion
  • Argument against abortion
  • Abortion and women rights
  • Abortion and father rights

15. Honour Killing

  • Honour killing is unethical
  • Role of khap panchayat

16. Marital Rape

  • Why Marital Rape should and should not be criminalized?
  • What are the hurdles?

17. Ethical Issue Involved in Child

  • Labour
  • Rights of children
  • Child labour and company
  • Solution
  • Role of consumer

18. Ethical Issue Involved in Treating Juvenile as Adult

  • Juvenile justice system
  • Negative implications

19. Ethics and Old Age

  • Ethical issues
  • Issues faced
  • Importance of autonomy
  1. Ethics in Public and Private Relationships
  • Ethical values in Private relationships
  • Ethical principles in Public relationships
  • Linkage between Private relationships and Public relationships

Some Important Links:

UPSC Main GS Exam Analysis