Context: IFLOWS-Mumbai is developed as a state of art Integrated Flood Warning system for Mumbai.   

Need of such system:  

  • Extreme precipitation events are on the rise in India driven by warming temperatures and changes in the monsoon due to climate change. 
  • The capital of the state of Maharashtra, Mumbai, a megapolis and the financial capital of India has been experiencing floods with increased periodicity.
    • Cyclone Nisarga missed the city narrowly on June 3 , 2020.
    • The recent flood on 29 August 2017, brought the city to a standstill.  
    • The flood during 26th July 2005, is probably etched in the memory of every Mumbai citizen, when the city received a rainfall of 94cm, a 100 year high in a span of 24 hours paralyzing the city completely. 

About the system: 

  • It is being developed by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in close coordination with Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai.
  • It will enhance the resilience of Mumbai by providing early warning for flooding specially during high rainfall events and cyclones 
  • The system has provisions to capture the urban drainage within the city and predict the areas of flooding.
  • It has been built using the city's data pertaining to its topography, drainage system, elevation, population, infrastructure, land use, water bodies including rivers like Mithi, Dahisar, Oshiwara, Poisar and Ulhas located in and around Mumbai. 
  • These details along with real-time rainfall inputs will be collated onto a Decision Support System, that will be used by the civic body authorities.


  • I-FLOWS is built on a modular structure and comprises seven modules, namely Data Assimilation, Flood, Inundation, Vulnerability, Risk, Dissemination Module and Decision Support System.  
  • The system incorporates - 
    • Weather models from the National Centre for medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF).
    • Field data from the rain gauge network stations setup by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) and  IMD (India Meteorological Department).
    • Thematic layers on land use, infrastructure etc provided by MCGM. 
  • Based on inputs from weather models, Hydrologic models are used to transform rainfall into runoff and provide inflow inputs into the river systems. 
  • A web GIS based decision support system is built to calculate the vulnerability and risk of elements exposed to flood.
  • Hydraulic models are used to solve equations of fluid motion to replicate the movement of water to assess flooding in the study area.    
  • Since, Mumbai is an island city with its connectivity to sea, hydrodynamic models and storm surge models are used to calculate the tide and storm surge impacts on the city. 

Benefits of system:

  • It will give timely warning about the occurrence and magnitude of floods
  • It will help in timely evacuation of people - Preservation of Human and Animal life
  • It will save the critical infrastructure like power and communication lines from flooding by creating robust barrier based on the data generated
  • It will help in making adequate number of shelter homes so that day to day activities of evacuated people are not affected 
  • It will help in avoiding misery, anxiety and inconvenience.
  • It will allow better coordination of emergency planning and post flood recovery.
  • It will assist with operational activities to improve conveyance/avoid culvert blockage prior to flooding.


https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1630928#:~:text=The Flood Warning System will,at Mumbai at 1230 hours.


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