Updated on 11 September, 2019
- Two new species of Zingiber, commonly referred to as gingers have been discovered from Nagaland by the scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI).
About Zingiber dimapurense
- Zingiber perenense has been discovered from the Peren district of Nagaland, while Zingiber dimapurense was found in the Dimapur district of the State.
- Of the two species, Zingiber dimapurense is taller, with leafy shoots measuring 90-120 cm high, whereas the leafy shoots of Zingiber perenense reach up to 70 cm.
About Zingiber perenense
- The lip of the flower (modified corolla) for Zingiber dimapurense is white in colour, with dense dark- purplish red blotches.
- Its pollen is a creamy-white and ovato-ellipsoidal, whereas the fruit is an oblong 4.5 cm-5.5 cm long capsule.
- Zingiber perenense was discovered about 50 kilometers away from where Zingiber dimapurense was found.
- The lip of the flower for Zingiber perenense is white in colour with purplish-red streaks all over, and the pollen is ellipsoidal.
- The plant was found growing in moist shady places on the bank of a small steam in the hilly terrain forest of the Tesen village under the Peren subdivision.
Climate and soil
- Family: Zingiberaceae
- It is an herbaceous perennial, the rhizomes of which are used as a spice.
- India is a leading producer of ginger in the world. Ginger is cultivated in most of the states in India.
- However, states namely Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat together contribute 65 percent to the country's total production.
- Ginger grows well in a warm and humid climate and is cultivated from sea level to an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
- Ginger can be grown both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
- For successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall at sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, fairly heavy and well-distributed showers during the growing period and dry weather for about a month before harvesting are necessary.
- Ginger thrives best in well-drained soils like sandy loam, clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam.
The Top Ginger Producing Countries
- The genus Zingiber has 141 species distributed throughout Asia, Australia and the South Pacific, with its centre of diversity in Southeast Asia.
- More than 20 species have been found in northeastern India.
- Earlier discoveries of Zingiber include Hedychium chingmeianum from the Tuensang district of Nagaland, Caulokaempferia dinabandhuensis from the Ukhrul district in Manipur in 2017, and Zingiber bipinianum from Meghalaya in 2015.
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- The global production of ginger was 2.1 million tons in the year 2013.
- India was the top producing country accounting for 33% of the world's total ginger production with 0.683 million tons.
- China followed in second place with 19% which accounted for 0.390 million tons.
- Nepal came in third place with 0.235 million tons while the other two top producing countries of ginger were Indonesia and Nigeria accounting for 0.233 and 0.160 million tons respectively.