Context: According to a recent report from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), titled ‘The Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID 2020)’, nearly five million people were displaced in India in 2019.

Key highlights: 

  • Worldwide scenario:
    • Globally, around 33.4 million people faced new internal displacements because of conflicts and disasters in about 145 countries in 2019.
  • Scenario in India:
    • The displacements in India were prompted by increased hazard intensity, high population and social and economic vulnerability.
    • More than 2.6 million people suffered displacement due to the southwest monsoon.
    • It added that 2019 was the seventh warmest year since 1901 in India and its monsoon was the wettest in 25 years.
  • Displacement triggered by disasters: Nearly three-quarters of the global displacements, accounting for 24.9 million of the total, were triggered by disasters in 2019. 
    • Out of these, about 95 percent took place due to weather hazards like storms and floods.
    • Displacement due to cyclone: 
      • Eight tropical storms hit in the year fuelling further destruction.
      • The northwest monsoon unleashed displacement along with cyclone Maha, which hit Kerala and the Lakshwadweep Islands. 
      • This was followed by Cyclone Bulbul, which struck Odisha and West Bengal, triggering 186,000 displacements.
    • Most of the disaster displacements were triggered by tropical storms and monsoon rains in South Asia and East Asia and Pacific. 
    • Bangladesh, China, India and the Philippines each recorded more than four million displacements in 2019.
  • Other violences related displacement:  Over 19,000 conflicts and violence also prompted the phenomenon. Political and electoral violence, especially in Tripura and West Bengal, led to the displacement of more than 7,600 people.
    • As per the report,Unrests and communal violence triggered displacement in the second half of the year.
    • A majority of conflict displacements took place due to armed conflict and communal violence which together accounted for a significant portion of the global total of 8.5 million displacements. 
  • Double burden of displacements: Natural disasters in Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen forced many people, already displaced by conflict, to flee for the second time.
    • Conflict continued unabated in countries such as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Syria. Violence increased sharply in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.

Way ahead: 

  • Policy formulation and coordination: Greater levels of political commitment is required in countries like Niger and Somalia improved the countries’ policy frameworks on internal displacement. 
    • Others like Afghanistan, Iraq and the Philippines included displacement in their development plans and reporting on the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • Strengthened capacity across humanitarian and development sectors manifested in better coordination and increased investment.
  • Improvements in the quantity and quality of data available also enabled better reporting and analysis, which in turn informed more effective responses and risk mitigation measures.
  • For instance, The combination of official monitoring of disaster displacement in the Philippines with mobile phone tracking data and social media analysis helped improve planning for shelters, reconstruction and long term urban recovery.

Internal Displacement Monitoring committee

  • It is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is the world's authoritative source  of data and analysis on internal displacement
  • Since its establishment in 1998 as part of the Norwegian Refugee Council, IDMC has offered a rigorous, independent and trusted service to the international community. 
  • The work of IDMC informs policy and operational decisions that improve the lives of the millions of people living in internal displacement, or at risk of becoming displaced in the future.
  • The Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID): The annual flagship report synthesises the latest statistics, country/situation assessments, thematic and policy analyses. 
  • Each year it presents the most up-to-date estimates of new displacements by conflict and disasters, and the total cumulative numbers of internally displaced people (IDPs) worldwide.
  • The GRID is the global reference for internal displacement data and analysis and is widely used by policy-makers, national governments, UN agencies, international NGOs, journalists and academics.
  • Global Disaster Displacement Risk Platform: An innovative tool based on IDMC’s probabilistic model for exploring and visualising disaster-related displacement risk metrics. 

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/economy/disasters-conflicts-triggered-5-mln-displacements-in-india-in-2019-70768

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