Q.1) Discuss the potential of Asian Infrastructure Investment bank as a key multilateral institution. 250 words
Why this question:
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) has approved funding of $500 million to support India’s efforts to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.
Start with basic facts - Started in 2016 to finance projects and based in china.
Potential of Bank:
- Foster sustainable development
- Promote regional cooperation and partnership
- Encourage private investment when private capital not available at reasonable terms
- Utilise its finances for harmonious economic growth of the region
- Chinese dominance - As it is largest contributor
- Isolation of developed nations - U.S and Japan unwilling to join
- Seen as a counter of World Bank and IMF
The bank is in its evolutionary stages and only time will tell whether it managed to work effectively or not.
Q.2) It is the poor implementation of law responsible for the present state of inter-state migrants amid COVID-19 outbreak, not the law in itself. Discuss. (15Marks -250words)
Why this question? - As migrant labour has been among the worst affected due to the lockdown, there have been discussions across the nation about the social security net available for workers.
Intro - One can start with data on migrants in India particularly inter-state migrants. As the question mentions inter-state migrants and law one can also start with Migrant Workmen Act,1979.
Body: Salient features of the act - protection to informal workers etc. Why the act failed to provide relief to the migrants in the present situation - onerous compliance requirements etc.
Impact of this - incentivize employers to under-report workmen etc.
Way ahead: Rationalization and proper implementation of law.
Q.3) In the context of MP and UP calling for suspension of key labour protection laws, Discuss the need to maintain a balance between Labour laws and resumption of Industrial activity.
Briefly introduce with the recent advances by MP and Up Government
COVID-19 and apathy towards migrant labour - cite poor planning, their precarious condition, Informal sector
Pros and Cons related to Labour protection laws
Balance between Labour laws and Industrial production - better regulation than abolition
Way Forward - Centre’s intervention, Better planning
Q.4) In the light of recent gas leak tragedy near Visakhapatnam, comment on safety initiatives taken by India to address chemical risks. (15 marks:250 words)
Why this question?
Safety from hazardous chemicals is an important issue in disaster management.
A gas leak, reminiscent of the 1984 Bhopal tragedy, has recently claimed at least 11 lives and affected thousands of residents in five villages in Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
- Elaborate current incident in brief
- Regulations covering the safety in transportation, liability, insurance, and compensations
- Existing legislations
- NDMA guidelines
- SC: ‘Absolute liability’ principle
- Loopholes in existing guidelines
- Inadequacy of safety infrastructure
- Lack of training of associated staff
- Implementation of the National Plan on Chemical Safety.
- Training of officers in the Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) and physicians
- Bring chemical safety at par with worldwide standards.
- Re-engineer process safety governance
To achieve drastic reductions in the frequency and number of major accidents, India should transform its safety regulatory system and build professional capacities. As a side benefit, this will also enable its strong and vibrant chemical and petrochemical industry to become world-class, both in market and safety performance.
Q.5) India requires creative diplomacy and flexibility to deal with China.Comment.
Why this question:India finds itself in an increasingly dangerous world, one that is fragmenting and slowing down economically.
- New geopolitical situation: caused primarily by the rise of China.
- New economic and political centre of gravity of the world: India and other powers Indonesia, South Korea, Iran, Vietnam are in a crowded Asia-Pacific region.
- Rapid shifts in the balance of power in the region have led to arms races and to rising uncertainty.
The China question
- China’s rise is the foremost challenge which could derail India’s quest. But it is also an opportunity.
- How to handle China:
- One possibility is to engage China bilaterally to see whether the two countries can evolve a new modus vivendi.
- Another option is to work with other powers to ensure that its interests are protected in the neighbourhood, the region and the world. The balance will keep shifting between cooperation and competition with China, both of which characterise that relationship.
- India-China relations are more complex than simple: there is room for both sides to seek a new modus vivendi. This would require a high-level strategic dialogue between the two sides about their core interests, red lines, differences and areas of convergence.
- U.S. is an essential partner for India’s transformation: But it is withdrawing from the world, less certain as to how it will choose to deal with China.
India risks missing the bus to becoming a developed country if it continues business and politics as usual, or tries to imitate China’s experience in the last 40 years, does not adapt, and does not manage its internal social and political churn better.