Q.1) Given the importance of handwashing and hygiene practices amid COVID-19 pandemic, water conservation has gained a prominent position in policy making. In this regard, discuss the linkages between Water and Climate Change, its implications and also mitigation strategy.


  • Context -Covid-19 and Water use
  • Linkage between Water and Climate Change
  • Implication of it - Extreme Weather events (Environmental -Flooding, Drought and Flooding, Social - Sanitation, Health, Food Production, SDG)
  • Mitigation Strategy/Way Forward - National Action Plan on Climate Change,Awareness, Water conservation strategy, Water resources Planning

Q: Do you think that Elections hold importance during pandemics ? Also discuss the options that executives can deploy to defer elections in a constitutional manner.


  • Importance of elections - Bedrock of democracy (Article -85(1), and Article 174(1)
  • Limitations in conduct of elections during Pandemic
  • Options available to Executive: National Emergency, 356
  • South Korea as Role model -Lessons learnt


Q.2) There is a need for everybody to be covered by quality healthcare, or for health services to be accessible to everyone. Comment.

Why this question: Healthcare facilities across the country straddle different levels of efficiency and sufficiency. The impact of COVID-19 has shaken even States like Kerala and Tamil Nadu that traditionally did well in the area of healthcare. 

Intro: mention the current scenario of the healthcare system.


Issues Health care system facing in india.

Right to healthcare: for and against


Suggest some ways to strengthen Indian healthcare.


Q.3) The recent gas leak tragedy near Visakhapatnam is a warning sign for industries across India. Elucidate.

Why this question?

Safety from hazardous chemicals is an important issue under disaster management.


A gas leak, reminiscent of the 1984 Bhopal tragedy, has recently claimed at least 11 lives and affected thousands of residents in five villages in Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.


  • Elaborate  current incident in brief
    • Source
    • Causes
  • Mention steps taken by India for chemical safety
  • Problems:
    • Loopholes in existing guidelines
    • Inadequacy of safety infrastructure
    • Lack of training of associated staff
  • Way ahead
    • Implementation of the National Plan on Chemical Safety.
    • Training of officers in the Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) and physicians
    • Bring chemical safety at par with worldwide standards. etc


  • Preparedness-mitigation-response-recovery


Q.4) Although a supporter of nationalism, Rabindranath Tagore was a vigorous critic of modern nationalism.Comment (15 Marks -250words)

Why this question? - 7th May is celebrated as the birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore every year.

Introduction: One can start with Tagore's concept of nationalism or can give a brief about Tagore’s early life.

Body: Explain Tagore’s concept of nationalism and tell why he did not support Gandhian non cooperation movement.

For Tagore freedom does not simply mean freedom from foreign rule, but freedom of soul and conscience.

Modern nationalism does not talk about removing age old inequities in Indian society, that is why Tagore criticized modern nationalism.

Conclude: His conception of nationalism is more relevant in current time than ever before to establish peace, harmony and the spiritual unity of humankind.


Q.) The reason given for keeping India out of regional discussions on Afghanistan is that it holds no “boundary” with Afghanistan; but in fact it is because New Delhi has never announced its support for the U.S.-Taliban peace process. Critically analyse. (250 words-15 marks)

Why is this question asked?

  • India has been sidelined from the United Nations Secretariat’s meeting of the “6+2+1” group on regional efforts to support peace in Afghanistan.
  • U.S. Special Representative for Afghanistan reconciliation Zalmay Khalilzad came to Delhi and met with External Affairs Minister (EAM) S. Jaishankar and National Security Adviser (NSA) Ajit Doval to brief them on progress in the peace process that has faltered in the past few weeks.


  • Background of peace talks.
  • USA-Taliban pact


  • Elaborate on India’s support for enduring and inclusive peace and reconciliation which is Afghan-led, Afghan-owned and Afghan-controlled. 
  • India’s support for Ashraf Ghani govt. In Kabul
  • India’s engagements with Afghanistan
  • Concerns for India
    • Exclusion from talks: The countries involved believe that a lasting solution in Afghanistan can be discussed without India in the room. It could seriously hamper India’s interest in Afghanistan and may threaten security in J&K.
    • Flawed approach: India’s position that only an Afghan-led, Afghan-owned, and Afghan-controlled process can be allowed is a principled one, but has no takers. Kabul, or the Ashraf Ghani government does not lead, own or control the reconciliation process today.
    • Supporting Ashraf Ghani not yielding results: It has had a two-fold effect: 
      • India’s voice in the reconciliation process has been limited
      • It has weakened India’s position with other leaders of the deeply divided democratic setup in Kabul such as the former chief executive Abdullah Abdullah. 
    • India and Taliban’s bitter past: The Taliban perceived India as a hostile country, as India had supported the anti-Taliban force Northern Alliance in the 1990s.
  • India never gave diplomatic and official recognition to the Taliban when it was in power during 1996-2001. 
  • Stronger Taliban: The U.S.-Taliban peace deal means that the Taliban will become more potent as the U.S. withdraws soldiers from the country, and will hold more sway in the inter-Afghan process.
  • Anti India terrorism: The Islamic State Khorasan Province (ISKP), believed to be backed by Pakistan’s establishment has been active. Recent attack on a gurdwara in Kabul was meant for the Indian embassy in Kabul.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act issue: Afghanistan’s majority-Muslim citizens have felt cut out of the move to offer fast track citizenship to only Afghan minorities, as much as they have by reports of anti-Muslim rhetoric and incidents of violence in India.

Conclusion: Provide a way forward

  • Pandemic aid
  • Building Taliban’s opposition
  • Following up with the US
  • An understanding between Iran and the U.S. on Afghanistan 
  • Pause in Indo-Pak conflict
  • Maintaining diplomatic presence
  • Talking with Taliban
  • Appoint special Afghan envoy