Q. Discuss the constitutional safeguards that were put in place in the aftermath of the National Emergency of 1975 to prevent the misuse of Emergency provisions in future. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - The Supreme Court is going to hear a plea, appealing to declare the Emergency proclaimed in 1975 to be “wholly unconstitutional”.

Intro - Constitutional provisions wrt National Emergency and the grounds on which 1975 emergency was proclaimed.


  • How it affected India as a democracy
  • Safeguards that were put in place in the aftermath 

Way ahead - Recommendations of various committees and Judiciary.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

Q. Reducing GHG emissions, promoting renewable energy and a long-term climate policy are the key pillars for a sustainable future. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - In the latest edition of the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), released by non-profit Germanwatch, India ranked high along with the European Union and the United Kingdom.

Intro - One can start with India’s NDCs for achieving a sustainable future.

Body - Mention the 3 pillars highlighted in the question and tell current status, steps taken and challenges in each of them.

Way ahead - What more needs to be done.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

Q) With the largest youth population in the world, India faces the difficult task of educating every citizen to become a productive member of society. Analyze. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • UNESCO’s State of the Education Report for India 2020, published this week, focuses on vocational education and training and showcases the growth of the skills development sector, along with emerging challenges. 

Introduction: Mention the significance of India’s demographic dividend.


Need for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Govt. initiatives

  • India’s Right to Education Act guarantees free and compulsory education for the ages of 6 to 14 years, and is based on books and written examinations. 
  • The National Skill Development Policy was launched in 2009 and revamped in 2015, recognising the challenge of skilling with speed and high standards. 
  • The Skill India Mission was launched soon after, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced his vision for making India the “skill capital” of the world.
  • The new National Education Policy (NEP)

Challenges: Societal stigma attached with vocational skills, lack of training etc.

Conclusion: Summarize and provide a way forward.

Q) Discuss the significance of Artificial intelligence in decoding the process of unfolding of proteins. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • As part of its work for the 14th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction, or CASP, DeepMind's AlphaFold 2 AI has shown it can guess how certain proteins will fold themselves with surprising accuracy. 

Introduction: Mention in brief about the Protein and its structure.


  • Unfolding of proteins, significance
  • Contribution of AI in studying protein, Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction, or CASP

Conclusion: Summarize the above point