Q.1) Critically analyse the Indo-China bilateral relations with respect to recent tensions on border.

Why this question:

Recently, India and China held talks between their foreign ministries and agreed to follow a consensus that differences should be handled peacefully and should not become disputes, in the highest-level diplomatic engagement since tensions along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) erupted in early May.


Discuss about recent conflict in ladakh.


Discuss about the reasons for border conflict such as varying interpretation of LAC and growing muscle power of China.

Mention about the recent efforts to strengthen bilateral relations.


Conclude with the way ahead.


Q.2) Discuss the initiatives taken by the government of India to ensure a transformation of the entire energy value chain and 24X7 energy access and security for all the citizens in the country. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Recently, Govt of India has launched the #iCommit campaign to promote energy efficient practices.

Intro - You can begin your answer by telling the importance of the power sector for the economy and for citizens.

Body - Give a brief about the power sector in India and problems faced by it. Then, mention the initiatives taken by the govt for transforming the sector -  National Electric Mobility Mission 2020, FAME 1 and 2,Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, the Saubhagya Scheme,Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojna (UDAY), amongst others - take 3-4 initiatives and highlight their objectives and significance.

Way ahead - Tell what more needs to be done.

Conclusion - You can conclude by saying for achieving SDGs and NDCs under the Paris Agreement transforming the power sector is the need of the hour.


Q.3)India will be occupying non-permanent UNSC seat for the eighth time. Comment on India’s objective during the tenure also elucidate the significance of the move.

Why this question?

India is guaranteed a place in the UNSC as it is the sole candidate for Asia-Pacific


Mention India’s increasing role in global platforms such as WHO executive board, UNSC, expansion of G-7  etc


  • About UNSC and non permanent membership
  • Process of election and tenure
  • India’s objectives
    • New Orientation for a Reformed Multilateral System’
    • Highlight international terrorism, United Nations reforms and Security Council expansion, streamlining the world body’s peacekeeping operations and technology initiatives etc
  • Significance
    • 75th year of Independence(2021)
    • Win a unanimous endorsement from the 55-nation grouping that included both China and Pakistan
    • Afghanistan agreed to step aside for the 2021-22 seat etc


Mention need of reforms in UNSC


Q.4) Countries around the world are amending their drone policies so that they can allow unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to fly Beyond Visual Line of Sight for maximum efficiency. Evaluate the advantages and concerns associated with it. Suggest a way forward for India's drone policy in context of BVLOS.

Why this question?

  • The Centre has notified draft rules prohibiting “carriage of payload” as well as “dropping of articles” by unmanned aerial vehicles.


  • What is BVLOS 
  • India’s drone policy


  • Benefits of BVLOS
  • Concerns: The main concern is uncontrolled flying that puts lives and vital infrastructure in danger. The agency must be assured that drones sharing the sky with airplanes will not result in midair collisions, and that the risk of damage to people and property on the ground is mitigated.
  • Need to align drone policy: Going forward, drones could be integrated into emergency response mechanisms called “cobotic responses” . These are responses in which humans cooperate with robots (effectively drones are robots).
  • Contactless delivery: Covid-19 responses show need to revisit India’s drone policy

Conclusion: The learnings from emergency responses across the world to Covid-19 will enable us to revisit the policy roadmap and introduce a few changes for faster adoption of drone technology by government agencies providing emergency services.


Q.5) The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 was brought with a novel intention to expedite the resolution process. Under the code an ecosystem of different bodies is there to ensure the same. Discuss. 15 marks (250 words)

Why this question

The President of India promulgated an ordinance suspending the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) for a period of at least six months from 25 March, 2020 to protect businesses from being dragged to bankruptcy courts.


You can tell it subsumed the resolution and liquidation powers under different acts like SARFAESI –for security enforcement.

The Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (RDDBFI) for debt recovery by banks and financial institutions.

Companies Act for liquidation and winding up of the company.

Bodies under the code:

  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) – An apex body for promoting transparency & governance in the administration of the IBC.
    • It will be involved in setting up the infrastructure and accrediting IPs (Insolvency Professionals (IPs) & IUs (Information Utilities).
    • It has 10 members from the Ministry of Finance, Law, and RBI.
  • Insolvency professionals: It will be a cadre of licensed professionals. 
    • They will be tasked with the administration of the resolution process and management of debtor’s assets, 
    • Also will act as a source of information to creditors in order to help them in decision making.
  • Information Utilities: The utility would specialise in procuring, maintaining and providing/supplying financial information to businesses, financial institutions, adjudicating authority, insolvency professionals and other relevant stakeholders. 
    • In 2017, National e-Governance Services Ltd (NeSL) became India’s first information utility (IU).
  • Insolvency Professional Agencies:  It registers insolvency professionals. 
    • The agencies conduct examinations to certify insolvency professionals and enforce a code of conduct for their performance.
  • Adjudicating Authorities
    • National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) – The adjudicating authority (AA), has jurisdiction over companies, other limited liability entities.
    • Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) has jurisdiction over individuals and partnership firms other than Limited Liability Partnerships.
    • The responsibilities of the authorities include:
      • approval to initiate the resolution process
      • appoint the insolvency professional,
      • approve the final decision of creditors


The above ecosystem ensures expeditious resolution of cases and has significantly help in tackling the NPA problem of banks.