Q.1) Efficient lighting will not only benefit consumers but also help in preserving the environment. Discuss the initiatives of government of India in this regard. (15 Marks - 250 Marks)

Why this question? - Recently, the Government of India’s zero subsidy Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) and Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP) marks their sixth anniversary.

Intro - Advantages of efficient lighting


  • Initiatives of Indian govt
  • Challenges

Way ahead - How to overcome these challenges

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion


Q.2) What are the various constitutional provisions with respect to the Budget Session of the Parliament. Discuss its significance.  (150 words)

Why this question?

The Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs (CCPA) recommended that the Budget Session of Parliament be held from January 29. 

Introduction: Briefly discuss sessions of the Parliament.


Constitutional provisions wrt the Budget Session of the Parliament:

  • Article 85:  It specifies that the central legislature had to be summoned to meet at least once a year, and that not more than 12 months could elapse between two sessions. 
  • According to Article 112 of the Indian Constitution, the Union Budget of a year, also referred to as the annual financial statement (AFS), is a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the government for that particular year.
  • Article 265: provides that ‘no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law’. 
  • Article 266: provides that ‘no expenditure can be incurred except with the authorisation of the Legislature’


  • Resource allocation for public welfare.
  • Creating programmes for citizens so that they get basic needs such as food, shelter, education and health care.
  • Fair distribution of income through taxes and subsidies.
  • Control inflation, deflation and economic fluctuations 
  • Changes in the tax structure in the country.
  • Country’s economic stability 

Conclusion: Summarize the discussion.