Q.1) Differentiate between special courts and fast track courts. Critically analyze the need for such courts in India. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, a three-judge Bench of the Supreme Court of India said that setting up of special courts to expeditiously try sitting and former MPs and MLAs accused of various crimes, will serve public interest and reestablish public faith in the judiciary.

Intro - Issues faced by Indian judiciary. 


  • Difference between special and fast track courts.
  • Critically analyze the need to establish these courts.

Way ahead

Working of special courts has to be studied critically: Parameters such as the frequency and number of effective hearings and calculating the number of pending cases need to be developed.

  • These are essential to check the growing number of special courts being established without definite purposes.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) The future of India’s environment lies in its cities. What are the challenges before Urban planners? Also discuss the way forward for sustainable development of cities. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • Nearly a third of the 100 cities in the world susceptible to ‘water risk’ are in India, according to the WWF Water Risk Filter. Thus the question.

Introduction:  Mention the significance of cities in protecting the environment.


Challenges for sustainable development:

  • Other than droughts and floods, the city’s risk levels were scored by evaluating several factors, including aridity, freshwater availability, climate change impact, the presence of regulatory laws governing water use, and conflict.
  • Population explosion
  • Data shortage for planning

Need for conservation of Urban watersheds and wetlands 

Way forward and conclusion: 

  • Managing GHGs
  • Restore wetlands
  • The Smart Cities initiative
  • Community efforts: 


Q.3) What are the causes and effects of the La Niña phenomena. Discuss (250 words)

Why this question?

According to the World Meteorological Organization in its latest Global Seasonal update, the La Niña phenomenon is back in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean after nearly a decade’s absence.


Mention the report of WMO on the onset of La Nina


  • Details about La Nina
  • Causes 
  • Effects: Worldwide, Asia, and India
  • Implications on India


Summarise the above discussion.