Q.1) Discuss the swiss Cheese in Indian context and highlight the need for reforms in the defence sector..

Why in news: COVID-19-induced cuts in defence spending, and their diversion to the social sector.


  • The Swiss cheese model is associated with accident investigation in an organisation or a system. A system consists of multiple domains or layers, each having some shortcomings. 
  • These layers are visualised in the model as slices of Swiss cheese, with the holes in them being the imperfections. 


Three slices in defence set-up

  • When applied to a nation’s defence preparedness, the Swiss cheese model, in its simplest form, works the reverse way. 
  • The slices represent the major constituents in a nation’s war-making potential, while the holes are pathways through which the domains interact. 
  • At the macro level, there are only three slices with holes in each.
    • These must align to ensure that a nation’s defence posture is in tune with its political objectives; any mismatch may turn out to be detrimental to the nation’s self-respect when the balloon goes up.
  •  Discuss the need for reforms.


Suggest some reforms like Theatre command etc


Q.2) The Essential Commodities Act of 1955 is an anachronistic law which is far from the realities of present times. Comment (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Union Cabinet approved amendments to the EC Act.

Intro - One can start with the objective of the EC Act and give reference of why it is in news now(amendments approved).

Body - Here you have to tell the need for amendments - establish how it has become anachronistic. Then mention the recently announced amendments and their possible impacts.

Conclusion - Tell how these reforms will help in creating a competitive market environment and doubling farmers income by 2022.


Q.3) A law outlining measures to control locusts attack is the need of the hour. Comment (15 marks - 250 marks)

Why this question? - Recently, swarms of locusts have been sighted in many parts of India and the administration has failed to warn regarding such attacks.

Intro - One can start by telling about locusts and their recent sightings in different parts of India travelling far from East Africa.

Body - First tell how these are harmful for crops in India. Then mention legal gaps in controlling locusts in India.

Way forward - A law outlining measures to control locusts attack is the need of the hour. Highlight, what can be the salient features of such law in brief.

Conclusion - Mention the immediate measures to be undertaken, till such a law is in place.


Q.4) People in India face different types of unemployment however the government has also taken prudent steps to tackle the issue. Commnet. 15 marks (250 words)

Why this question:

Second Annual report was released by the National Statistical Office based on Periodic labour force survey conducted during June 2018 -July 2019


Give basic definition of unemployment


Types of Unemployment:

  • Open Unemployment :It is a situation wherein a large section of the labour force does not get a job that may yield them a regular income.
  • Underemployment: It is a situation in which people employed contribute less than their capacity to produce.
    • In this type of unemployment, people are not gainfully employed.
  • Disguised Unemployment: It is a situation in which more people are doing work than actually required.
    • Even if some are withdrawn, production does not suffer.
  • Seasonal Unemployment : Unemployment occurring during some months of the year due to seasonal unavailability of work.
  • Cyclical Unemployment : Caused by trade cycles at regular intervals. 
    • Generally, capitalist economies are subject to trade cycles.
  • Educated Unemployment: Among the educated people, apart from open unemployment, many are underemployed because their qualification does not match the job.
  • Technological Unemployment: It is the result of certain changes in the techniques of production which may not warrant much labour.
  • Structural Unemployment :Occur due to drastic changes in the economic structure of a country. These changes may affect either the supply of a factor or demand for a factor of production.
  • Casual Unemployment : When a person is employed on a day-to-day basis, casual unemployment may occur due to short-term contracts, shortage of raw materials, fall in demand, change of ownership etc.
  • Frictional Unemployment : It is sometimes called search unemployment and can be based on the circumstances of the individual. 
    • It is time spent between jobs when a worker is searching for a job or transferring from one job to another.

Steps by Government:

  • National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme: The scheme provides reimbursement of 25 percent of prescribed stipend subject to a maximum of Rs. 1500/per month per apprentice.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana: This skill development programmes launched for the new entrants so that they get better-paying jobs
  • Shram Suvidha Portal: The Ministry of Labour & Employment has developed a unified Web Portal ‘Shram Suvidha Portal’, to bring transparency and accountability in the enforcement of labour laws and ease the complexity of compliance.
  • MGNREGA: Launched in 2005 to provide social security by guaranteeing a minimum of 100 days of paid work per year to all the families whose adult members opt for unskilled labour-intensive work.
  • National Career Service (NCS): The NCS provides a variety of employment-related services. The National Career Service Project brings employers, trainers and unemployed on a single platform.


Link with the concept of demographic dividend.


Q.5) COVID-19 pandemic has yet again highlighted the need for diversifying the protein sources away from animals. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The emerging concept of planetary health is characterizing the impacts of human-caused disruptions of Earth’s ecological systems.


Reference to zoonotic origin of COVID-19


  • Interlinkages in the COVID-19 origin
  • Threats of factory farming
  • Factory farming in India
  • Steps taken for diversifying protein sources away from animals
  • Suggestions


India has an opportunity to set aside the liabilities of industrial animal agriculture and create a smarter alternative protein industry supplying us and the rest of the world.