Q.1) A dedicated focus towards energy-efficient appliances would allow India to ensure 24x7 power for all. Discuss. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Power Minister recently announced the Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020. The rules lay down uniform performance standards for power distribution companies (discoms) and make them liable to compensate consumers in case of violations. 

Introduction: Mention the significance of energy efficiency.


Need for energy efficiency in India

  • Rising demand
  • Discoms stress

Adoption of energy-efficient appliances in India

Govt initiatives


  • Growing energy needs
  • Lack of awareness

Way forward:

  • Improving the availability and affordability of energy-efficient appliances
  • Consumer awareness campaign on energy efficiency
  • Monitoring supply quality and changing consumption patterns on a real-time basis is needed. 
  • The smart metering network would also be crucial to enforce consumer rights rules.

Conclusion: Summarize the discussion.

Q.2) For New Delhi, comprehensive reforms of global institutions are a key foreign policy priority. Analyse. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • India is a vocal supporter of multilateralism and institutional mechanisms in world politics.

Introduction:  Mention in brief about India’s efforts for global governance reforms.


  • Need for reforms of global institutions like UNO, WTO etc., Significance of multilateralism
  • India’s possible role in reforms
  • Challenges

Conclusion: Summarize with the way forward