Q.1) What is Genome Sequencing? Highlight its importance and progress made by India in this field. (10 marks - 150 words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Ministry of Science & Technology announced the successful completion of PAN-India 1000 Genome sequencing of SARS- CoV-2. 

Intro - Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides or bases (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanines, and Thymine), in a genome. The human genome is made up of 23 chromosome pairs with a total of about 3 billion DNA base pairs.

Importance of Genome Sequencing:

  • An important step towards understanding genes: The genome sequence will help scientists find genes much more easily and quickly. 
  • To understand how genes work: Scientists also hope that being able to study the entire genome sequence will help them understand how the genome as a whole works to direct the growth, development and maintenance of an entire organism.
  • Knowledge of what lies outside the genes:  Finally, genes account for less than 25 percent of the DNA in the genome, and so knowing the entire genome sequence will help scientists study the parts of the genome outside the genes. 

Progress made by India - 

  • Genome India Project (GIP):
    • Recently, the Ministry of Science and Technology has approved an ambitious gene-mapping project called the Genome India Project (GIP). 
    • A collaboration of 20 institutions including the Indian Institute of Science and some IITs, the project will enable new efficiencies in medicine, agriculture and the life sciences.
    • It aims to ultimately build a grid of the Indian “reference genome”, to fully understand the type and nature of diseases and traits that comprise the diverse Indian population.
    • The mega project hopes to form a grid after collecting 10,000 samples in the first phase from across India, to arrive at a representative Indian genome.
  • Recently, the Ministry of Science & Technology announced the successful completion of PAN-India 1000 Genome sequencing of SARS- CoV-2. 


Q.2) The ballooning fiscal deficit due to Covid induced lockdown is a cause for worry for the government's fiscal management. Analyze. (15M, 250 Words)

Why this question?

  • ₹6.62 trillion is the highest deficit during the first three months of a financial year as a proportion of the budgeted annual deficit, in the past 24 years.

Introduction to the answer:

  • A brief about fiscal deficit, facts and figures

Body: Discuss the following points

  • Reasons behind high fiscal deficit
    • Falling revenues due to Covid induced lockdown
    • Meagre disinvestment earnings
  • Possible solutions
    • Disinvestments
    • borrowing more money 
    • direct money printing by RBI 
  • Concerns
    • Ratings downgrade due to increased govt. borrowing
    • Inflation due to printing money


To conclude, the government needs to look at innovative ways—like selling land banks, cutting goods and services tax (GST) and income-tax rates—to shore up tax revenues. Also, it needs to prioritize its expenditure big time.


Q.3) India’s federal nature and diversity demand that no regional language is given supremacy over another. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The three-language formula advocated in the National Education Policy (NEP 2020) has been rejected by the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister recently and has only reiterated the State’s unwavering position on an emotive and political issue.


Mention NEP,2020 in brief


  • Provisions related to languages in NEP,2020
  • Opposition by Tamil Nadu to the language provisions
  • Background of the language issue in T.N
  • English, a global link language


Mention that the option of voluntary learning can be the way ahead.