Q.1 Government intervention, sometimes though well intended, leads to outcomes opposite to those intended. Analyse the above statement in the light of government interventions that is creating barriers in the agriculture marketing in India. Discuss the steps taken by the government to eliminate these barriers. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister made several landmark and historic decisions, which will go a long way in helping India’s farmers while also transforming the agriculture sector.

Intro - You can start with issues associated with agriculture marketing in India.


  1. Highlight the reasons for these issues - Unintended outcome of govt interventions - For ex, Essential Commodities Act, APMC, policies in food grain markets etc. Analyse how these interventions, though well intended leading to unintended outcomes.
  2. Then, highlight the reforms announced by the govt - Amending ECA etc.

Way forward - Regular monitoring and proper implementation of recent reforms to ensure that they will not turn up in unintended outcomes again.

Conclusion - The above measures is an effort to eliminate needless Government intervention enabling competitive markets and thereby spur investments and economic growth.


Q.2) The Indian ports and shipping industry play a vital role in sustaining growth in the country’s trade and commerce. Comment. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Recently Kolkata Port trust has been renamed and the shipping industry is always in the news for one or the other reasons.

Intro - You can start by briefing about the number of ports - major and minor in India.


  1. Tell how the shipping industry plays a vital role in sustaining growth in the country’s trade and commerce - For ex, According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95 percent of India's trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done through maritime transport etc.
  2. Then, tell the challenges faced by the shipping industry in India and steps taken by govt to address these challenges.

Conclusion - Tell for sustaining growth in trade and commerce increasing investments and cargo traffic is the need of the hour. 


Q.3) Border Area Development Program is a key initiative aimed at robust development of border areas. Commnet. 10 marks  (150 words) 

Why this Question:

To ramp up infrastructure along the China border, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has decided to spend 10% funds of  Border Area Development Programme (BADP) on border projects in Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim. 


BADP was initiated during the 7th five year plan (1985-90)


Tell about BADP:

  • The Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs has been implementing the Border Area Development Programme (BADP) through the State Governments as part of a comprehensive approach to Border Management. 
  • BADP was initiated in the border areas of the western region during that Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) period but with time it’s scope has expanded to cover 16 states.
  • The programme aims
    • to meet the special development needs of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the international border 
    • to saturate the border areas with the essential infrastructure through convergence of Central/State/BADP/Local schemes and participatory approach

Significance of BADP:

  • It helps integrate these areas with the hinterland.
  • It creates a positive perception of care by the country 
  • It encourages people to stay on in the border areas leading to safe and secure borders.
  • It helps in augmenting storage, logistics and maneuverability of forces.


By giving current context of allocating 10% funds of the scheme for development along Indo-China Border.    


Q4)The proposed G-11 grouping would recognize India’s place amongst the world’s richest nations, and acknowledge its global voice. However, India needs to be careful while choosing the sides. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

 Dismissing the current configuration of the G-7 of the world’s most developed nations as “outdated”, U.S. President had recently announced that he would like to expand it to a G-11


Context of US and China are in a war of words 


  • Mention the proposed countries
  • Rationale for choosing them
  • What does it mean to India?
  • Tussle between US and China
  • Suggestions for India in choosing sides


Mention need of an overall increase in the relevance of the forum.


Q.5) India’s attempts towards balancing its relations with China against its own interests have restricted its interactions with Australia to some extent. But Australia is expecting India to play a bigger role in the Indo-Pacific region. Analyze India-Australia relations in light of the above statement. (15M, 250 Words)

Why this question?

The virtual summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the Australian premier, Scott Morrison is being held.


  • Current state of bilateral relations


  • Significance
  • Concerns
    • Underestimating Australia: In its preoccupation with the perennial challenges in the neighbourhood and its enduring aspiration to dance with the great powers, India has in the past missed out on the opportunities for productive partnerships with the middle powers. 
    • No coherent Indo pacific strategy:
      • For Australia a ‘free and open Indo-Pacific’ means establishing a regional architecture with fellow democratic countries to help maintain the ‘rules-based order’ as China becomes the most powerful actor in the region.
    • Avoiding antagonising China:  India’s unwillingness to invite Australia to participate in the Malabar naval exercise, despite Australian lobbying, has also sparked speculation over the fate of the Quadrilateral Consultative Dialogue (the ‘Quad) involving India, Australia, Japan and the United States.
  • China’s expansive OBOR project

Way forward

  • Leveraging the trilateral dynamics between ASEAN, Australia and India: It is evident in policy areas such as maritime security, climate change, energy security, law enforcement, governance and the politics of security institutions.
  • An ‘engage and balance’ strategy is the best alternative to the dead end of containment. The role of the US is of particular importance as it has recently been a driver of efforts towards bringing similarly aligned states in counterbalancing China.

It is only by building a series of overlapping bilateral and minilateral platforms for regional security cooperation that Delhi and Canberra can limit the dangers of the growing geopolitical imbalance in the Indo-Pacific.