Q. Discuss the steps taken by the Election Commission of India (ECI) to expand voter base in the elections, considered as the biggest festival of a democracy? (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Election Commission of India (ECI) approached the Law Ministry to permit NRIs to cast their votes from overseas through postal ballots. 

Intro - Start with some constitutional provisions with respect to the elections in India.


  • Reasons for low voter turnout despite these constitutional safeguards.
  • Steps taken by ECI

Way ahead - What more needs to be done.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

Q. Knowing who is a differently abled person is of prime importance while framing welfare schemes for this disadvantaged community. Discuss (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - December 3 is celebrated every year as International Day of Persons with Disabilities  by the UN in a bid to promote a more inclusive and accessible world for the differently-abled and to raise awareness for their rights. 

Intro - Data on number on disabled in India.


  • Significance of identifying differently abled persons in India
  • Different ways to identify differently abled persons in India
  • Issues with this estimation

Way ahead - How to overcome the above issues.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

Q) Discuss the judicial interventions for checking criminalization of politics. Also suggest steps that need to be taken to address the issue. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The Central government has told the Supreme Court that it rejected the idea of barring convicted legislators for life from contesting elections, forming or becoming an office-bearer of a political party. Thus the question.

Introduction: Briefly explain criminalization of politics. Mention Section 8A in The Representation of the People Act, 1951


  • Public Interest Foundation vs. UOI case 2018
  • People’s Union of Civil Liberties (PUCL) judgement, 2003
  • Manoj Narula v. Union of India case
  • Lok Prahari v. Union of India, 2018
  • The Supreme Court's Judgement On NOTA, 2013
  • Chief Election Commissioner vs. Jan Chowkidar, 2013

Conclusion/ way forward:

  • Incentives for both politicians and voters
  • There should be a ceiling on election expenditure 
  • disqualification at the stage of charging
  • Setting up of national electoral fund or state funding of election

Q) Why has the US pulled out of the Iran nuclear deal? What are its implications for India and the world? (150 words)

Why this question?

  • Donald Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), and reimposed sanctions on Iran. Now, for the new US President, one of his most pressing early diplomatic challenges would be Iran. His promise was to take the U.S. back to the deal, but any such move would meet with strong opposition from its allies in West Asia, especially Israel. 

Introduction: Explain briefly about the Iran Nuclear Deal.


Reasons behind US withdrawal:

  • Iran’s support for groups like Hamas and Hezbollah.
  • Iran’s development of ballistic missiles

Implications for India

  • On Oil and Gas
  • Development of Chabahar port.

Global implication:

  1. US-Iran war, fall in the global economy.
  2. High fuel prices 
  3. Blocking of Strait of Hormuz leading to hampering of global trade

Conclusion: Summarize the above points