Q.1) The different aspects of division of powers between Delhi and Centre leads to jurisdictional conflicts between the two. Suggest ways to solve these conflicts. (15 Marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Supreme Court of India recently turned down an appeal by the Delhi government to reject the bail granted to an activist, accused in a case related to the Delhi riots.

Intro - A brief about the 69th Constitutional Amendment act, 1992.

Body - 

  • Nature of division of powers between Delhi and centre.
  • Reasons for conflict.
  • Way to resolve the conflicts.

Way ahead - 

  • Harmonious Functioning: For the sake of adhering to the principle of representative democracy and cooperative federalism.
  • Incorporating the Washington DC Model: Indian Government can emulate the model of administrative sharing of power between the Federal Government of US and state of Washington.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Discuss the significance of relations between India  and Central Asian countries. Also suggest a way forward to improve the ties. (250 word)

Why this question?

  • The 2nd meeting of the India-Central Asia Dialogue was held in the digital video-conference format  under the chairmanship of the External Affairs Minister of India. 

Introduction: Mention the recent collaboration between India and Central Asian countries.


  • Background of relations: Relations between India and Central Asia are ancient and civilisational. India has been connected closely with Central Asia through the Silk Route 
  • Significance of relations:
    • Economic: All Central Asian States are rich and well endowed potentially with mineral and hydroelectric resources. Kazakhstan has the world’s second largest reserves of uranium. 
    • Uzbekistan has large reserves of gas, uranium and gold. 
    • Turkmenistan is endowed with world’s fourth largest reserves of natural gas. Tajikistan is blessed with huge hydroelectric potential. 
    • Kyrgyzstan is rich in gold and hydroelectric power.
    • Strategic: Security, stability and prosperity of Central Asia is imperative for peace and economic development of India. 
  • PM through his ”Neighbourhood First” policy has given increased importance to India’s proximate region.
  • Infrastructure: All these countries are landlocked. Some of them are doubly landlocked. So they need India’s expertise in connectivity projects to interlink economies. 

Way forward and conclusion: Infrastructure development: Significant opportunities exist for India to undertake projects for building infrastructure related to rail network, roads, highways, power stations, transmission lines, renewable energy, nuclear power etc in these countries.