Q. What are cold waves? How do they impact Indian climate in the winters? (10 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - As Delhi is bracing for another phase of near cold wave conditions in the coming days, there is the need to understand the phenomenon of cold waves.

Intro - Define cold waves.

Body - 

  • IMD’s criteria for cold waves.
  • Reason for their occurrence.
  • Affected regions in India.
  • How do they impact Indian climate?

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

Q) Today, the Paris Agreement is deemed as the panacea for all environmental ills but in reality, it has rejected the principles of “common but differentiated responsibilities” and “the polluter must pay”. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • U.S. President-elect Joe Biden has already laid out a clean energy and infrastructure plan, a commitment to return to the Paris Agreement, and a goal of net-zero emissions by 2050. Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention the challenges before the implementation of Paris Agreement.


  • About Paris Agreement, features


  • Inadequate targets
  • No commitments
  • Ignoring “common but differentiated responsibilities” and “the polluter must pay”.
  • All countries were placed on an equal footing by making reduction of greenhouse gas emissions voluntary. 

Conclusion: The IPCC report acknowledges that “the pathways to avoiding an even hotter world would require a swift and complete transformation not just of the global economy but of society too”. This will only be possible if the world rejects nationalism and parochialism and adopts collaborative responses to the crisis. 

Q) What is the significance of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit for India’s interests? (150 words)

Why this question?

  • India will host the Heads of Government (HoG) council meeting of the eight-nation Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. 

Introduction: Discuss briefly about the outcomes of the recent SCO summit.


  • About SCO
  • India’s entry into SCO
  • How SCO can help India
  • Global and Asian geopolitics
  • Significance to India

Conclusion: Summarize with way forward