Q) Critically analyse India’s performance in conserving biodiversity under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The first UN Biodiversity Summit was convened in the UN Headquarters. The Biodiversity Summit was participated by the Head of States/Minister level representing the countries which are party to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Thus the question.

Introduction: India, with only 2.4% of the earth’s land area hosts around 8% of the world’s recorded species. 

Body: Discuss the following keywords

  • The objectives and mandate of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
  • India’s achievement in biodiversity conservation
    • Biological Diversity Act, 2002, to realize the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 
    • Enhanced the combined forest and tree cover
    • highest number of tigers in the wild 
    • 5% of the country’s land designated as protected areas for meeting the conservation objectives, contributing to Aichi Biodiversity Target-11 and the SDG -15.
    • India aims to restore 26 million hectares of degraded and deforested land, and achieve land-degradation neutrality by 2030.
  • Concerns:
  • EIA norms dilution: The new draft rules of Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) 2020 are extremely controversial.
  • Ignoring indigenous communities 
  • Development Vs conservation debate

Conclusion: World leaders are now being asked to sign up to a pledge to protect 30% of the world’s biodiversity by 2030 through a ten-point plan which aligns with the Paris Agreement. India too has the opportunity to plan a trajectory of green growth after COVID-19.